REFERENCES

You’ll Wish You Were an Elephant (Killing Cancer Kindly):

Selected References

Part One

  • Hanahan, D & Weinberg, RA (January 2000). ‘The hallmarks of cancer’. Cell, 100 (1), pp. 57–70. DOI:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81683-9. PMID 10647931.

 

  • Hanahan, D & Weinberg, RA (2011). ‘Hallmarks of cancer: the next generation’. Cell, 144 (5), pp. 646–674. DOI:10.1016/j.cell.2011.02.013. PMID 21376230. Cell 100:59.

 

  • Evan, GI & Vousden, KH (17 May 2001). ‘Proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis in cancer’. Nature, 411 (6835), pp. 342–8. Bibcode:2001Natur.411.342E. DOI:10.1038/35077213. PMID 11357141. S2CID 4414024.

 

  • Bryson, B (November 2005). A short history of nearly everything: special illustrated edition. Broadway Books. ISBN 0-7679-2322-7.

 

 

Part Two

  • Van Gent, DC, Hoeijmakers, JH & Kanaar, R (2001). ‘Chromosomal stability and the DNA double-stranded break connection’. Nature Reviews Genetics, 2 (3), pp. 196–206. DOI:10.1038/35056049. PMID 11256071.

 

  • Frank, SA (2003). ‘Somatic mutation: early cancer steps depend on tissue architecture’. Current Biology, 13 (7), R261–3. DOI:10.1016/s0960-9822(03)00195-7. PMID 12676101.

 

  • Campisi,J(2005). ‘Aging, tumorsuppression and cancer: High wire-act!’. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, 126 (1), pp. 51–8. DOI:10.1016/j.mad.2004.09.024. PMID 15610762.

 

  • Michor, F, Iwasa, Y & Nowak, MA (2004). ‘Dynamics of cancer progression’. Nature Reviews Cancer, 4 (3), pp. 197–205. DOI:10.1038/nrc1295. PMID 14993901. Reference – Cannabis and Cancer

 

  • ‘Special issue: cannabis in medicine’. Novack, V (ed.). European Journal of Internal Medicine, 49, pp. 1–50 (5 March 2018).

 

 

 

Part Three

  • E and Anderson, S (eds.) (1998). The Chambers dictionary. London: Chambers. • Kirkpatrick, EM (ed.) (1992). Brewer’s concise dictionary of phrase and fable. London: Weidenfeld Nicolson Illustrated.

 

  • Peto, R, Roe, FJC, Lee, PN; Levy, L & Clack, J (October 1975). ‘Cancer and ageing in mice and men’. British Journal of Cancer, 32 (4), pp. 411–426. DOI:10.1038/bjc.1975.242. PMC 2024769. PMID 1212409.

 

  • Nagy, JD, Victor, EM & Cropper, JH (2007). ‘Why don’t all whales have cancer? A novel hypothesis resolving Peto’s paradox’. Integrative and Comparative Biology, 47 (2), pp. 317–328. DOI:10.1093/icb/icm062. PMID 21672841.

 

 

Part Four

Cancer Genes: Size Doesn’t Matter

  • Data from Huntsman Cancer Institute provide one explanation of how large animals have adopted an evolutionary mechanism to address cancer (Dr Mel Greaves, PhD and Luca Ermini, PhD of the Institute of Cancer Research, London).

 

 

Part Five

Alcohol General Discussion

  • Al.-Hassani, S & Abattouy, M (2008). ‘The advent of scientific chemistry’. Muslim

Heritage.

 

  • Curzon, GN (7 July 2010). ‘The history of alcohol in Islam’. Coming Anarchy.

 

  • Forbes, RJ (1970). A short history of the art of distillation. Brill Publishers. Page 87. ISBN 978-9-00400-617-1.

 

  • Multhauf, R (1966). The origins of chemistry. London: Oldbourn. Pages 204–6.

 

  • Hill, DR (1993). Islamic science and engineering. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978-0-74860-455-5.

 

  • Hitti, PK (1977). History of the Arabs from the earliest times to the present (10th ed.). London: Macmillan Publishers. Page 365. ISBN 978-0-33309-871-4.

 

  • Modanlou, HD (November 2008). ‘A tribute to Zakariya Razi (865–925 AD), an Iranian pioneer scholar’ (PDF). Archives of Iranian Medicine, 11 (6), pp. 673–677. PMID 18976043.

 

  • Schlosser, Stefan (May 2011). ‘Distillation – from Bronze Age till today’. 38th International Conference of SSCHE.

 

  • Harper, Douglas. ‘Alcohol’. Etymonline. MaoningTech.

 

  • Lohninger, H (21 December 2004). ‘Etymology of the word “alcohol”’. VIAS Encyclopedia.

 

 

Alcohol and Cancer

  • Maasland, DH, van den Brandt, PA, Kremer, B et al. (2014). ‘Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and the risk of subtypes of head-neck cancer: Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study’. BMC Cancer, 14, p. 187.

 

  • Prabhu, A, Obi, KO & Rubenstein, JH (2014). ‘The synergistic effects of alcohol and tobacco consumption on the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a metaanalysis. Am J Gastroenterol, 109, pp. 822–7.

 

  • Seitz, HK & Stickel, F (2007). ‘Molecular mechanisms of alcohol-mediated carcinogenesis’. Nat Rev Cancer, 7, pp. 599–612.

 

  • Boffetta, P & Hashibe, M (2006). ‘Alcohol and cancer’. Lancet Oncol, 7, pp. 149–56.

 

  • Linhart, K, Bartsch, H & Seitz, HK (2014). ‘The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytochrome’ P-450 2E1 in the generation of carcinogenic etheno-DNA adducts’. Redox Biol, 3, pp. 56–62.

 

  • Baumgardner, JN, Shankar, K, Korourian, S et al. (2007). ‘Undernutrition enhances alcohol-induced hepatocyte proliferation in the liver of rats fed via total enteral nutrition’. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol, 293, G355–64.

 

  • Acharya, C & Bajaj, JS (2017). ‘Gut microbiota and complications of liver disease’. Gastroenterol Clin North Am, 46, pp. 155–69.

 

  • Fedirko, V, Tran, HQ, Gewirtz, AT et al. (2017). ‘Exposure to bacterial products lipopolysaccharide and flagellin and hepatocellular carcinoma: a nested case-control study’. BMC Med, 15, p. 72. 351

 

  • Kong, SY, Tran, HQ, Gewirtz, AT et al. (2016). ‘Serum endotoxins and flagellin and risk of colorectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort’. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 25, pp. 291–301.

 

  • Singletary, KW & Gapstur, SM (2001). ‘Alcohol and breast cancer: review of epidemiologic and experimental evidence and potential mechanisms’. JAMA, 286, pp. 2143–51.

 

 

Smoking and Cancer

Part 1 References

  • Reitsma, MB, Fullman, N; Ng, M, Salama, JS & Abajobir, A (April 2017). ‘Smoking prevalence and attributable disease burden in 195 countries and territories, 1990– 2015: a systematic analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015’. The Lancet, 389 (10082), pp. 1885–906. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(17)30819-X. PMC 5439023. PMID 28390697.

 

  • Pollard, T (2004). ‘The pleasures and perils of smoking in early modern England’. Smoke: a global history of smoking. Gilman, SL & Xun, Z (eds.). London: Reaktion Books. Page 38.

 

  • World Health Organisation (2008). WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic 2008. Geneva: WHO Press. Pages 267–88.

 

 

Smoking and Cancer

Part 2 References

  • Feng, Z, Hu, W, Hu, Y & Tang, MS (October 2006). ‘Acrolein is a major cigarette-related lung cancer agent: preferential binding at p53 mutational hotspots and inhibition of DNA repair’. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103 (42), pp. 15404–9. Bibcode:2006PNAS..10315404F. DOI:10.1073/pnas.0607031103. PMC 1592536. PMID 17030796.

 

  • Hecht, SS (1999). ‘Tobacco smoke carcinogens and lung cancer’. JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 91 (14), pp. 1194–1210. DOI:10.1093/jnci/91.14.1194. PMID 10413421.

 

  • Martell, EA (March 1983). ‘alpha-Radiation dose at bronchial bifurcations of smokers from indoor exposure to radon progeny’. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 80 (5), pp. 1285–9. Bibcode:1983PNAS…80.1285M. DOI:10.1073/pnas.80.5.1285. PMC 393580. PMID 6572389.

 

  • Muggli, ME, Ebbert, JO, Robertson, C & Hurt, RD (September 2008). ‘Waking a sleeping giant: the tobacco industry’s response to the polonium-210 issue’. American Journal of Public Health, 98 (9), pp. 1643–50. DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2007.130963. PMC 2509609. PMID 18633078.

 

  • Rego, B (September 2009). ‘The polonium brief: a hidden history of cancer, radiation, and the tobacco industry’ (PDF). Isis; an International Review Devoted to the History of Science and Its Cultural Influences, 100 (3), pp. 453–84. DOI:10.1086/644613. PMID 19960838.

 

  • Office of Research Services, Division of Radiation Safety. ‘F. Typical Sources of Radiation Exposure’. United States National Institutes of Health.

 

  • ‘Radiation risk for Xray and CT exams – dosage chart’. Associated Radiologists. • ‘Radiation Risks and Realities’ (PDF). United States Environmental Protection Agency (16 July 2014).

.

  • Talhout, R, Opperhuizen, A & van Amsterdam, JG (October 2007). ‘Role of acetaldehyde in tobacco smoke addiction’. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 17 (10), pp. 627–36. DOI:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2007.02.013. PMID 17382522.

 

  • Maneckjee, R & Minna, JD (October 1994). ‘Opioids induce while nicotine suppresses apoptosis in human lung cancer cells’. Cell Growth & Differentiation, 5 (10), pp. 1033–40. PMID 7848904.

 

  • ‘ Secondhand smoke’. American Lung Association (June 2007).

 

 

Electronic Cigarettes

References

  • Burstyn, Igor (9 January 2014). ‘Peering through the mist: systematic review of what the chemistry of contaminants in electronic cigarettes tells us about health risks’. BMC Public Health, 14 (1), p. 18. DOI:10.1186/1471–2458-14-18. ISSN 1471–2458. PMC 3937158. PMID 24406205.

 

  • Brady, Benjamin R, De La Rosa, Jennifer S, Nair, Uma S & Leischow, Scott J (2019). ‘Electronic cigarette policy recommendations: a scoping review’. American Journal of Health Behavior, 43 (1), pp. 88–104. DOI:10.5993/AJHB.43.1.8. ISSN 1087–3244. PMID 30522569.

 

  • Smith, L, Brar, K, Srinivasan, K, Enja, M & Lippmann, S (June 2016). ‘E-cigarettes: how “safe” are they?’. J Fam Pract. 65 (6), pp. 380–5. PMID 27474819.

 

  • ‘Nicotine without smoke: tobacco harm reduction’. Royal College of Physicians (28 April 2016).

 

  • ‘Evidence review of e-cigarettes and heated tobacco products 2018 A report commissioned by Public Health England’ (PDF). Public Health England.

 

  • Hartmann-Boyce, J, McRobbie, H, Bullen, C; Begh, R, Stead, LF, Hajek, P & Hartmann-Boyce, J (2016). ‘Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation’. Cochrane Database Syst Rev., 9, CD010216. DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD010216.pub3. PMC 6457845. PMID 27622384.

 

  • Breland, AB, Spindle, T, Weaver, M & Eissenberg, T (2014). ‘Science and electronic cigarettes’. Journal of Addiction Medicine, 8 (4), pp. 223–233. DOI:10.1097/ADM.0000000000000049. ISSN 1932-0620. PMC 4122311. PMID 25089952.

 

  • Harrell, PT, Simmons, VN, Correa, JB, Padhya, TA & Brandon, TH (4 June 2014). ‘Electronic nicotine delivery systems (“e-cigarettes”): review of safety and smoking cessation efficacy’. Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, 151 (3), pp. 381–393.

 

  • ‘Electronic nicotine delivery systems’ (PDF). World Health Organization (21 July 2014). Pages 1–13.

 

  • Hajek, P, Etter, JF, Benowitz, N, Eissenberg, T & McRobbie, H (31 July 2014). ‘Electronic cigarettes: review of use, content, safety, effects on smokers and potential for harm and benefit’. Addiction, 109 (11), pp. 1801–10.

 

  • Durmowicz, EL (2014). ‘The impact of electronic cigarettes on the paediatric population’. Tobacco Control, 23 (Supplement 2), ii41–ii46.

 

  • Ebbert, JO, Agunwamba, AA & Rutten, LJ (2015). ‘Counseling patients on the use of electronic cigarettes’. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 90 (1), pp. 128–134.

 

  • Rowell, TR & Tarran, R (2015). ‘Will chronic e-cigarette use cause lung disease?’. American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, 309 (12), L1398–L1409.

 

  • Hildick-Smith, GJ, Pesko, MF, Shearer, L, Hughes, JM., Chang, J, Loughlin, GM & Ipp, LS (2015). ‘A practitioner’s guide to electronic cigarettes in the adolescent population’. Journal of Adolescent Health, 57 (6), pp. 574–9.

 

  • Caponnetto, P, Russo, C, Bruno, CM., Alamo, A, Amaradio, MD & Polosa, R. (March 2013). ‘Electronic cigarette: a possible substitute for cigarette dependence’. Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease, 79 (1), pp. 12–19.

 

  • Palazzolo, DL (November 2013). ‘Electronic cigarettes and vaping: a new challenge in

clinical medicine and public health. A literature review’. Frontiers in Public Health, 1 (56), p. 56.

 

  • Glantz, SA & Bareham, DW (January 2018). ‘E-Cigarettes: use, effects on smoking, risks, and policy implications’. Annual Review of Public Health, 39 (1), pp. 215– 235.

 

  • ‘ Companies cease sales of e-liquids with labeling or advertising that resembled kid-friendly foods following FDA, FTC warnings’. United States Food and Drug Administration (23 August 2018). • ‘E-cigarettes to be regulated as medicines’. National Health Service (12 June 2013). • Collaco, JM (2015). ‘Electronic use and exposure in the pediatric population’. JAMA Pediatrics, 169 (2), pp. 177–182. • Mravec, B, Tibensky, M, Horvathova, L & Babal, P (2019). ‘E-cigarettes and cancer risk’. Cancer Prevention Research, 13 (2), pp. 137–144.

 

  • Holbrook, BD (2016). ‘The effects of nicotine on human fetal development’. Birth Defects Research Part C: Embryo Today: Reviews, 108 (2), pp. 181–192.

 

Cigarette Additives References

  • ‘Cigarette Ingredients – Chemicals in Cigarettes’. Tri-County Cessation Center. New York State Department of Health Tobacco Control Program. Archived on the Wayback Machine on 21 January 2016.

 

  • Martin, T (15 November 2016) ‘Ingredients that can be found in cigarettes’. Verywell Mind. 352

 

  • Rabinoff, M, Caskey, N, Rissling, A & Park, C (November 2007). ‘Pharmacological and chemical effects of cigarette additives’. American Journal of Public Health, 97 (11), pp. 1981–1991. DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2005.078014. PMC 2040350.

 

  • BAT (12 December 1986). ‘Mutagenic activity of flavour compounds. FN AQ2222, BN 400916808-400916815’. Cited in a health information web page published by BUPA. Archived on the Wayback Machine on 7 June 2007.

 

 

Part Six

Infection and Cancer

  • Plummer, M, de Martel, C, Vignat, J, Ferlay, J, Bray, F & Franceschi, S (2012). ‘Global burden of cancers attributable to infections in 2008: a review and synthetic analysis’. Lancet Oncol, 13, pp. 607–615.

 

  • Pisani, P, Parkin, DM, Muñoz, N & Ferlay, J (1997). ‘Cancer and infection: estimates of the attributable fraction in 1990’. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 6, pp. 387–400.

 

 

Part Seven

References – Diet and Cancer

The Mediterranean Diet

  • Zhou, W, Mukherjee, P, Kiebish, MA, Markis, WT, Mantis, JG & Seyfried, TN. (2007). ‘The calorically restricted ketogenic diet, an effective alternative therapy for malignant brain cancer’. Nutrition & Metabolism, 4 (5). DOI: 10.1186/1743-7075-4-5.

 

  • Weber, DD, Aminazdeh-Gohari, S & Kofler, B (11 February 2018). ‘Ketogenic diet in cancer therapy’. Aging (Albany NY), 10 (2), pp. 164–165.

 

 

Intermittent Fasting from Dawn to Sunset

  • Mindikoglu, AL. et al (2017). ‘Impact of time-restricted feeding and dawn-to-sunset fasting on circadian rhythm, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease’. Gastroenterol. Res. Pract., 2017. DOI:10.1155/2017/3932491.

 

  • Deng, J et al. ‘LATS1 suppresses proliferation and invasion of cervical cancer’. Mol. Med. Rep., 15 (4) (2017), pp. 1654–1660.

 

  • Leber, SL et al. (20170. ‘Homer1a protein expression in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression’. J. Neural Transm. (Vienna), 124 (10), pp. 1261–1273.

 

 

High-Fructose Corn Syrup and Cancer

  • European Starch Association (10 June 2013). ‘Factsheet on glucose fructose syrups and isoglucose’.

 

  • White, JS (2014). ‘Sucrose, HFCS, and fructose: history, manufacture, composition, applications, and production’. Fructose, high fructose corn syrup, sucrose and health, nutrition and health. Rippe, JM (ed.). New York: Springer Science+Business Media. ISBN 978-1-4899-8077-9.

 

  • US Food and Drug Administration (4 January 2018). ‘High fructose corn syrup: questions and answers’.

 

  • The Coca-Cola Company (23 March 2010). ‘Coca Cola freestyle dispenser users manual’ (PDF). Pages 4 & 13. Retrieved 12 August 2016.

 

  • ‘Mexican Coke a hit in U.S.’ The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011.

 

  • Mao, W, Schuler, MA, Berenbaum, MR (2013). ‘Honey constituents up-regulate detoxification and immunity genes in the western honey bee Apis mellifera’. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110 (22), pp. 8842–8846.

 

 

Sugar and Cancer

  • World Health Organization (2015). Guideline: sugars intake for adults and children. Geneva: WHO Press. Page. 4. ISBN 978-92-4-154902-8. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 July 2018. • Harper, Douglas. ‘Sugar’. Online Etymology Dictionary.

 

  • Adas, M (January 2001). ‘Agricultural and pastoral societies in ancient and classical history’. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Temple University Press. Page. 311. ISBN 1-56639-832-0.

 

  • Kieschnick, J (2003). The Impact of Buddhism on Chinese material culture. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-09676-7.

 

  • Pariona, A (25 April 2017). ‘Top sugar consuming nations in the world’. World Atlas. Retrieved 20 May 2018.

 

  • WHO/FAO (2003). Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases: report of a joint WHO/FAO expert consultation (PDF). WHO Technical Report Series 916. ISBN 92-4-120916-X. Retrieved 25 December 2013.

 

  • Malik, VS, Popkin, BM, Bray, GA, Despres, JP, Willett, WC & Hu, FB (2010). ‘Sugar-sweetened beverages and risk of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes: A meta-analysis’. Diabetes Care, 33 (11), pp. 2477–83.

 

  • Malik, VS, Pan, A, Willett, WC & Hu, FB (01 October 2013). ‘Sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain in children and adults: a systematic review and metaanalysis’. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 98 (4), pp. 1084–1102.

 

  • World Health Organization (2015). Guideline: sugars intake for adults and children. Geneva: WHO Press. ISBN 978-92-4-154902-8. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 July 2018.

 

 

Milk and Cancer Part 1

  • Echternkap SE, Aad PY, Eborn DR & Spicer LJ (2012). ‘Increased abundance of aromatase and folical stimulating hormone receptor mRNA and decreased insulinlike growth factor-2 receptor mRNA in small ovarian follicles of cattle selected for twin births’. J Anim Sci, 90, pp. 2193–200.

 

  • ‘ Managing cow lactation cycles’. The Cattle Site (18 May 2015)

 

  • Ganmaa, D & Sato, A (2005). ‘The possible role of female sex hormones in milk from pregnant cows in the development of breast, ovarian and corpus uteri cancers’. Med Hypotheses, 65, pp. 1028–37.

 

  • Barr, SI, McCarron, DA, Heaney, RP et al. (2000). ‘Effects of increased consumption of fluid milk on energy and nutrient intake, body weight and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy older adults’. J Am Diet Asoc, 100, pp. 810–7.

 

  • Cadogan, J, Eastell, R, Jones, N & Barker, ME (1997). ‘Milk intake and bone mineral acquisition in adolescent girls: randomised, controlled intervention trial’. BMJ, 315, pp. 1255–60.

 

  • Zhu, K, Du, X, Cowell, CT et al. (2005). ‘Effects of school milk intervention on coritcal bone acceleration and indicators relevant to bone metabolism in Chinese girls aged 10–12 y in Beijing’. Am J Clin Nutr, 81, pp. 1168–75.

 

  • Rich-Edwards, JW, Ganmaa, D, Pollaak, MN et al. (2007). ‘Milk consumption and the pre-pubertal somatoropic axis’. Nutr J, 6, p. 28.

 

  • FAO/WHO/UNU (1985). Energy and protein requirements: report of a joint FAO/WHO/UNU expert consultation. WHO Technical Report Series 724. Geneva: World Health Organisation.

 

  • Harrison, Lennon R, Holly, J, et al. (2017). ‘Does milk intake promote prostate cancer initiation or progression via effects on insulin-like growth factors (IGFs)? A systematic review and meta-analysis’. Cancer Causes Control, 28, pp. 497–528.

 

  • Melnik, BC (2015). ‘Milk – a nutrient system of mammalian evolution promoting mTORC1-dependent translation’. Int J Mol Sci, 16, pp. 17048–87.

 

  • World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (2007). ‘Second expert report: food, nutrition, physical activity, and the prevention of cancer: a global perspective’. Washington, DC: AICR. 353

 

  • Hemenway, D, Azrael, DR, Rimm, EB, Feskanich, D & Willett, WC (1994). ‘Risk factors for hip fracture in US men ages 40 through 75 years’. AM J Public Health, 84, pp. 1843–5.

 

  • Hegsted, DM (1986). ‘Calcium and osteoporsosis’. J Nutr, 116, pp. 2316–9.

 

  • Hegsted, DM (2001). ‘Fractures, calcium, and the modern diet’. AM J Clin Nutr, 74, pp. 571–3.

 

  • Feskanich, D, Bischoff-Ferrari, HA, Frazier, AL. & Willett, WC (2014). ‘Milk consumption during teenage years and risk of hip fractures in older adults’. JAMA Pediatr, 168, pp. 54–60.

 

  • Ganmaa, D, Li, XM, Wang J. Qin, LQ, Wang, PY & Sato, A (2002). ‘Incidence and mortality of testicular and prostatic cancers in relation to world dietary practices’. Int J Cancer, 98, pp. 262–7.

 

  • Aune, D, Navarro Rosenblatt, DA, Chan, DS et al. (2015). ‘Dairy products, calcium, and prostate cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies’. Am J Clin Nutr, 101, pp. 87–117.

 

  • Song, M, Fung, TT, Hu, FB et al. (2016). ‘Association of animal and plant protein intake with all-cause and cause-specific mortality’. JAMA Intern Med, 176, pp. 1453–53.

 

  • Scientific Committee on Animal Health and Animal Welfare (10 March 1999). ‘Report on animal welfare aspects of the use of bovine somatotrophin’.

 

 

Milk and Cancer Part 2

  • Echternkap, SE, Aad, PY, Eborn, DR & Spicer, LJ (2012). ‘Increased abundance of aromatase and folical stimulating hormone receptor mRNA and decreased insulinlike growth factor-2 receptor mRNA in small ovarian follicles of cattle selected for twin births’. J Anim Sci, 90, pp. 2193–200.

 

  • Ganmaa, D & Sato, A (2005). ‘The possible role of female sex hormones in milk from pregnant cows in the development of breast, ovarian and corpus uteri cancers’. Med Hypotheses, 65, pp. 1028–37.

 

  • Barr, SI, McCarron, DA, Heaney, RP et al. (2000). ‘Effects of increased consumption of fluid milk on energy and nutrient intake, body weight and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy older adults’. J Am Diet Asoc, 100, pp. 810–7.

 

  • Cadogan, J, Eastell, R, Jones, N & Barker, ME (1997). ‘Milk intake and bone mineral acquisition in adolescent girls: randomised, controlled intervention trial’. BMJ, 315, pp. 1255–60.

 

  • Zhu, K, Du, X, Cowell, CT et al. (2005). ‘Effects of school milk intervention on coritcal bone acceleration and indicators relevant to bone metabolism in Chinese girls aged 10–12 y in Beijing’. Am J Clin Nutr, 81, pp. 1168–75.

 

  • Rich-Edwards, JW, Ganmaa, D, Pollaak, MN et al. (2007). ‘Milk consumption and the pre–pubertal somatoropic axis’. Nutr J, 6, p. 28.

 

  • FAO/WHO/UNU (1985). Energy and protein requirements: report of a joint FAO/WHO/UNU expert consultation. WHO Technical Report Series 724. Geneva: World Health Organisation.

 

  • Harrison, LR, Holly, J et al. (2017). ‘Does milk intake promote prostate cancer initiation or progression via effects on insulin–like growth factors (IGFs)? A systematic review and meta-analysis’. Cancer Causes Control, 28, pp. 497–528.

 

  • Melnik, BC (2015). ‘Milk – a nutrient system of mammalian evolution promoting mTORC1–dependent translation’. Int J Mol Sci, 16, pp. 17048–87.

 

  • World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (2007). ‘Second expert report: food, nutrition, physical activity, and the prevention of cancer: a global perspective’. Washington, DC: AICR.

 

  • Hegsted, DM (1986). ‘Calcium and osteoporsosis’. J Nutr, 116, pp. 2316–9.

 

  • Feskanich, D, Bischoff–Ferrari, HA, Frazier, AL. & Willett, WC (2014). ‘Milk consumption during teenage years and risk of hip fractures in older adults’. JAMA Pediatr, 168, pp. 54–60.

 

  • Ganmaa, D, Li, XM, Wang, J, Qin, LQ, Wang, PY & Sato, A (2002). ‘Incidence and mortality of testicular and prostatic cancers in relation to world dietary practices’. Int J Cancer, 98, pp. 262–7.

 

  • Song, M, Fung, TT, Hu, FB et al. (2016). ‘Association of animal and plant protein intake with all-cause and cause-specific mortality’. JAMA Intern Med, 176, pp. 1453–53.
  • Scientific Committee on Animal Health and Animal Welfare (10 March 1999). ‘Report on Animal Welfare Aspects of the Use of Bovine Somatotrophin’.

 

 

Milk and Cancer Part 3

  • Lerman, B et al. (14 September 2018). ‘Oxytocin and cancer: an emerging link’. World Journal of Clinical Oncology, 9 (5), pp. 74–82.

 

  • Whittington, K, Connards, B et al. (1 July 2007). ‘The effect of oxytocin on cell proliferation in the human prostate is modulated by gonadal steroid implications for benign prostate hyperplasia and cancer of the prostate’. Prostate, 67 (10), pp. 1132–42.

 

  • ‘Formaldehyde and cancer risk’. National Cancer Institute, 2011 (IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2006, National Toxicology Program, 2011).

 

  • ‘Occupational safety and health guidelines for formic acid’. OSHA. USA.

 

  • National Toxicology Program (2011). Report on carcinogens (12th ed.). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Services, National Institute of Health. ISBN 9781613442333. 3

 

  • Bhatti, M – investigative journalist. GNN News Channel, Pakistan.

 

 

Part Eight

  • Colditz, GA (ed.) (2015). The SAGE encyclopedia of cancer and society. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications.

 

  • International Agency for Research on Cancer/World Health Organization. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Available at: monographs.iarc.fr.

 

  • Caballero, B et al. (eds.) (2015). Encyclopedia of food and health. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science. Page 658. ISBN 978-0-12384-953-3.

 

 

It’s a Radiant World

How Much Radiation is Safe?

  • Koerth-Baker, M (27 August 2010). ‘Bananas are radioactive—But they aren’t a good way to explain radiation exposure’. Boing Boing. Retrieved 25 May 2011. Attributes the title statement to Geoff Meggitt, a former health physicist for the UK Atomic Energy Authority.

 

  • Federal Guidance Report 13, p. 16. United States Environmental Protection Agency, 1999.

 

  • Eisenbud, M & Gesell & TF (1997). Environmental radioactivity: from natural, industrial, and military sources. Academic Press, pp. 171–172. ISBN 978-0-12235- 154-9.

 

 

Measuring Radioactivity with Bananas

  • Nain, M, Gupta, M, Chauhan, RP, Kant, K, Sonkawade, RG & Chakarvarti, SK (November 2010). ‘Estimation of radioactivity in tobacco’. Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics, 48 (11), pp. 820–2.

 

  • Abd El-Aziz, N, Khater, AEM. & Al.-Sewaidan, HA (2005). ‘Natural radioactivity contents in tobacco’. International Congress Series, 1276, pp. 407–8.

 

 

Radiation and Cancer

  • LaFavore, M (1986). ‘Radon: the quiet killer’. Funk & Wagnalls 1987 Science Yearbook. New York: Funk & Wagnalls. ISBN 0-7172-1517-2. 354

 

 

Natural Sources of Radon in the Environment

  • Mueller Associates, SYSCON Corporation, Brookhaven National Laboratory (1988). Handbook of radon in buildings: detection, safety, & control. CRC Press. Pages 28–32. ISBN 978–0-89116-823-2.
  • ‘The geology of radon’. United States Geological Survey.

 

 

History of Radiation Toxicity with Radon

  • ‘Radon toxicity: who is at risk?’. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2000.

 

  • Roscoe, RJ, Deddens, JA, Salvan, A & Schnorr, TM. (1995). ‘Mortality among Navajo uranium miners’. American Journal of Public Health, 85 (4), pp. 535–40.

 

 

Health Risks of Radon Gas Radiation

  • ‘Known and probable carcinogens’. American Cancer Society.

 

  • Rericha, V, Kulich, M, Rericha, R, Shore, DL & Sandler, DP (2007). ‘Incidence of leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma in Czech uranium miners: a casecohort study’. Environmental Health Perspectives, 114 (6), pp. 818–822.

 

 

Health Risks in Children

  • ‘Environmental radon exposure and childhood leukemia’. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 15 (5), pp. 332–347.

 

  • Druzhinin, V, Sinitsky, MY, Larionov, AV, Volobaev, VP, Minina, VI & Golovina, TA (2015). ‘Assessing the level of chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes in long-term resident children under conditions of high exposure to radon and its decay products’. Mutagenesis, 50 (5), pp. 677–83.

 

 

Intentional or Therapeutic Exposure to Radon Gas

  • Salak, K & Nordeman, L (2004). ‘59631: Mining for Miracles’. National Geographic. National Geographic Society.

 

 

Health Policies for Radon Control

  • ‘Protecting people and families from radon: a federal action plan for saving lives’. United States Environmental Protection Agency.

 

 

National Radon Action Plan

  • ‘The national radon action plan: a strategy for saving lives.’ US Environmental Protection Agency.

 

 

Death Toll Attributed to Radon

  • ‘Radon: a likely carcinogen at all exposures’. Annals of Oncology, 12 (10), pp. 1341–51.

 

  • Field, RW, Steck, DJ, Smith, BJ et al. (2000). ‘Residential radon gas exposure and lung cancer: the Iowa Radon Lung Cancer Study’. American Journal of Epidemiology. Oxford Journals, 151(11), pp. 1091–102.

 

 

Radiation Testing for Radon Gas

  • Kansas State University. ‘National radon program services’. Retrieved 17 October 2017.

 

 

Radon Mitigation and Radon Removal

  • ‘Consumer’s guide to radon reduction’. United States Environmental Protection Agency.

 

 

Nitrosodimethylamine References

  • Tricker, AR & Preussmann, R (1991). ‘Carcinogenic N-nitrosamines in the diet: occurrence, formation, mechanisms and carcinogenic potential’. Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology, 259(3–4), pp. 277–289.

 

  • Najm, I & Trussell, RR (2001). ‘NDMA formation in water and wastewater’. Journal American Water Works Association, 93 (2), pp. 92–99.

 

  • Mitch, WA, Sharp, JO, Trussell, RR, Valentine, RL, Alvarez-Cohen, L & Sedlak, DL (2003). ‘N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) as a drinking water contaminant: a review’. Environmental Engineering Science, 20 (5), pp. 389–404.

 

  • ‘Nitrosamine impurities’. European Medicines Agency (EMA). Retrieved 11 July 2020.

 

  • Mitch, William A & Sedlak, David L (2002). ‘Formation of N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) from dimethylamine during chlorination’. Environmental Science & Technology, 36 (4), pp. 588–595.

 

 

All Suspects Big and Small

List of IARC Group 1 Agents – Carcinogenic to humans

  • International Agency for Research on Cancer/World Health Organization. ‘List of classifications, agents classified by the IARC monographs, volumes 1–124’. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Risk to Humans.

 

 

Part Nine

  • ‘What is cancer screening?’. National Cancer Institute. 2010-01-13. • Wilson, JM, Jungner, G (1968). ‘Principles and practice of screening for disease’ (PDF). Public Health Papers. Vol. 34. Geneva: World Health Organization.

 

 

Part Ten

  • ‘The top 10 causes of death’. World Health Organization. 9 December 2020.

 

  • ‘Cancer prevention: 7 steps to reduce your risk’ (27 September 2008). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 30 January 2010.

 

  • Valle, I, Tramalloni, D & Bragazzi, NL (June 2015). ‘Cancer prevention: state of the art and future prospects’. Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene, 56 (1), E21–7. PMC 4718348. PMID 26789828.

 

  • Anand, P, Kunnumakkara, AB, Kunnumakara, AB, Sundaram, C, Harikumar, KB, Tharakan, ST, Lai, OS, Sung, B & Aggarwal, BB (2008). ‘Cancer is a preventable disease that requires major lifestyle changes’. Pharm. Res. 25 (9), pp. 2097–116.

Prevention of Cancer

History of Cancer Before Modern Prevention

  • ‘The history of cancer’. American Cancer Society.

 

  • ‘The history of cancer’. Institut Jules Bordet (Association Hospitalière de Bruxelles – Centre des Tumeurs de ULB). • Skinner, P (2001). ‘Unani-tibbi’. Gale encyclopedia of alternative medicine. Longe, JL (ed.). Michigan: Gale Group.

 

  • ‘Avicenna’. Encyclopedia Britannica. 355

 

 

The Components of Cancer Prevention

  • Gofrit, ON, Shemer, J, Leibovici, D, Modan, B & Shapira, SC (2000). ‘Quaternary prevention: a new look at an old challenge’. Isr Med Assoc J, 2 (7), pp. 498–500.

 

 

References – Prevention of Cancer

  • Leavell, HR & Clark, EG (1979). ‘The science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life, and promoting physical and mental health and efficiency’. Preventive medicine for the doctor in his community (3rd ed.). Huntington, NY: Robert E. Krieger Publishing Company.

 

  • ‘Preventive health care’. The Lancet, 345 (8965), pp. 1611–1615. DOI:10.1016/s0140-6736(95)90119-1. PMID 7783540.

 

  • Gofrit, ON, Shemer, J, Leibovici, D, Modan, B & Shapira, SC (2000). ‘Quaternary prevention: a new look at an old challenge’. Isr Med Assoc J, 2 (7), pp. 498–500.

 

 

Chillies and Cancer

  • University of California, San Diego (3 August 2014). ‘Study: spicy capsaicin can reduce risk of colorectal tumors’. News-Medical.

 

 

Intermittent Fasting from Dawn to Sunset

Part 2 Reference

  • Mindikoglu, Ayse L, Abdulsada, Mustafa M, Antrix, J, Min Choi, J et al. (15 April 2020). ‘Intermittent fasting from dawn to sunset for 30 consecutive days is associated with anticancer proteomic signature and upregulates key regulatory proteins of glucose and lipid metabolism, circadian clock, DNA repair, cytoskeleton remodeling, immune system and cognitive function in healthy subjects’. Journal of Proteomics, 217, DOI: 10.1016/j.jprot.2020.103645.

 

 

Prostate Cancer References

  • Hurst, R, Hooper, L, Norat, T et al. (2012). ‘Selinium and prostate cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis’. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 96, (1), pp. 111–22.

 

  • Aune, D, Navarro Rosenblatt, DA et al. (2014). ‘Dairy products calcium and prostate cancer risk: a systematic review in meta-analysis of cohort studies’. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 202 (1), pp. 87–117).

 

  • Rodrigues, C, McCullough, ML, Mondul, AM et al. (2003). ‘Calcium dairy products and risk of prostate cancer in a prospective cohort of united states men’. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers Prev, 12, pp. 597–603).

 

 

Breast Cancer

  • Ferlay, J, Soerjomataram, I, Ervik, M et al. (2015). ‘GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide. IARC Cancer Base, No. 11’ [Internet]. Lyon, France: IARC.
  • McPherson, K, Steel, CM & Dixon, JM (2000). ‘ABC of breast diseases. Breast cancer epidemiology, risk factors and genetics’. BMJ, 321, pp. 624–8.

 

  • ‘American Cancer Society (2014). ‘Cancer Facts & Figures 2014’, Atlanta: American Cancer Society.

 

  • Putti, TC, El-Rehim, DM, Rakha, EA et al. (2005). ‘Estrogen receptor-negative breast carcinomas: a review of morphology and immunophenotypical analysis’. Mod Pathol, 18, pp. 26–35.

 

 

General Risk Factors

Life Events

  • McPherson, K, Steel, CM & Dixon JM (2000). ‘ABC of breast diseases. Breast cancer epidemiology, risk factors and genetics’. BMJ, 321, pp. 624–8.

 

  • MacMahon, B (1993). ‘General Motors Cancer Research Prizewinners Laureates Lectures. Charles S. Mott Prize. Reproduction and cancer of the breast’. Cancer, 71, pp. 3185–8.

 

  • Berkey, CS, Gardner, JD, Frazier, AL. et al. (2000). ‘Relation of childhood diet and body size to menarche and adolescent growth in girls’. Am J Epidemiol, 152, pp. 446–52.

 

 

Ionising Radiation

  • Modan, B, Chetrit, A, Alfandary, E et al. (1989). ‘Increased risk of breast cancer after low-dose irradiation’. Lancet, 1, pp. 629–31.

 

  • Ronckers, CM, Erdmann, CA & Land, CE (2005). ‘Radiation and breast cancer: a review of current evidence’. Breast Cancer Res, 7, pp. 21–32.

 

 

Medication

  • International Agency for Research on Cancer/World Health Organization (2012). Combined estrogen-progestogen contraceptives (IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans, 100A). Lyon, France: IARC Publications/WHO Press. Pages 283–317. ISBN 978-92-832-1318-5.

 

  • GK, Beral, V, Green, J et al. (2006). ‘Hormonal therapy for menopause and breast-cancer risk by histological type: a cohort study and meta-analysis’. Lancet Oncol, 7, pp. 910–8.

 

 

Physical Activity and Breast Cancer

  • Sczaniecka, AK, Brasky, TM, Lampe, JW et al. (2012). ‘Dietary intake of specific fatty acids and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women in the VITAL cohort’. Nutr Cancer, 64, pp. 1131– 42.110.

 

  • World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research. ‘Breast cancer report 2017’. Washington DC: AICR.

 

  • Hastert, TA, Beresford, SA, Patterson, RE et al. (2013). ‘Adherence to WCRF/AICR cancer prevention recommendations and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer’. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 22, pp. 1498–508.

 

  • Howard, RA, Leitzmann, MF, Linet, MS et al. (2009). ‘Physical activity and breast cancer risk among pre- and postmenopausal women in the U.S. Radiologic Technologists cohort’. Cancer Causes Control, 20, pp. 323–33.

 

  • Suzuki, R, Iwasaki, M, Yamamoto, S et al. (2011). ‘Leisure-time physical activity and breast cancer risk defined by estrogen and progesterone receptor status – the Japan Public Health Center–based Prospective Study’. Prev Med, 52, pp. 227–33a.

 

  • Wu, Y, Zhang, D & Kang, S (2013). ‘Physical activity and risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective studies’. Breast Cancer Res Treat, 137, pp. 869–82.

 

  • Borch, KB, Lund, E, Braaten, T et al. (2014). ‘Physical activity and the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer – the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study’. J Negat Results Biomed, 13, p. 3.

 

  • McKenzie, F, Ferrari, P, Freisling, H et al. (2015). ‘Healthy lifestyle and risk of breast cancer among postmenopausal women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort study’. Int J Cancer, 136, pp. 2640–8.
  • McTiernan, A (2008). ‘Mechanisms linking physical activity with cancer’. Nat Rev Cancer, 8, pp. 205–11.

 

 

Obesity and Weight

  • Schonfeld, SJ, Pfeiffer, RM, Lacey JV, Jr. et al. (2011). ‘Hormone-related risk factors and postmenopausal breast cancer among nulliparous versus parous women: an aggregated study’. Am J Epidemiol, 173, pp. 509–17.
  • Michels, KB, Terry, KL & Willett, WC (2006). ‘Longitudinal study on the role of body size in premenopausal breast cancer’. Arch Intern Med, 166, pp. 2395–402a.
  • Burton, A, Martin, R, Galobardes, B et al. (2010). ‘Young adulthood body mass index and risk of cancer in later adulthood: historical cohort study’. Cancer Causes Control, 21, pp. 2069–77. 356
  • Wada, K, Nagata, C, Tamakoshi, A et al. (2014). ‘Body mass index and breast cancer risk in Japan: a pooled analysis of eight population-based cohort studies’. Ann Oncol, 25, pp. 519–24.

 

 

Breast Feeding

  • Iwasaki, M, Otani, T, Inoue, M et al. (2007). ‘Role and impact of menstrual and reproductive factors on breast cancer risk in Japan’. Eur J Cancer Prev, 16, pp. 116– 23a.

 

  • Kawai, M, Minami, Y, Kuriyama, S et al. (2010). ‘Reproductive factors, exogenous female hormone use and breast cancer risk in Japanese: the Miyagi Cohort Study’. Cancer Causes Control, 21, pp. 135–45a.

 

  • Palmer, JR, Boggs, DA, Wise, LA et al. (2011). ‘Parity and lactation in relation to estrogen receptor negative breast cancer in African American women’. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 20, pp. 1883–91.

 

  • Butt, S, Borgquist, S, Anagnostaki, L et al. (2014). ‘Breastfeeding in relation to risk of different breast cancer characteristics’. BMC Res Notes, 7, p. 216.

 

 

Alcohol and Vitamins

  • Trichopoulou, A, Bamia, C, Lagiou, P et al. (2010). ‘Conformity to traditional Mediterranean diet and breast cancer risk in the Greek EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) cohort’. Am J Clin Nutr, 92, pp. 620–5.

 

  • World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research. ‘Breast cancer report 2017’. Washington DC: AICR. Page 107.

 

  • Couto, E, Sandin, S, Lof, M et al. (2013). ‘Mediterranean dietary pattern and risk of breast cancer’. PLoS One, 8, e55374.

 

  • Zhang, X, Spiegelman, D, Baglietto, L et al. (2012). ‘Carotenoid intakes and risk of breast cancer defined by estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status: a pooled analysis of 18 prospective cohort studies’. Am J Clin Nutr, 95, pp. 713–25.

 

  • Bakker, MF, Peeters, PH, Klaasen, VM et al. (2016). ‘Plasma carotenoids, vitamin C, tocopherols, and retinol and the risk of breast cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort’. Am J Clin Nutr, 103, pp. 454–64.

 

  • Visvanathan, K, Crum, RM, Strickland, PT et al. (2007). ‘Alcohol dehydrogenase genetic polymorphisms, low-to-moderate alcohol consumption and risk of breast cancer’. Alcohol Clin Exp Res, 31, pp. 467–76.

 

  • Zhang, SM, Lee, IM, Manson, JE et al. (2007). ‘Alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk in the Women’s Health Study’. Am J Epidemiol, 165, pp. 667–76.

 

  • Suzuki, R, Iwasaki, M, Inoue, M et al. (2010). ‘Alcohol consumption-associated breast cancer incidence and potential effect modifiers: the Japan Public Health Center– based Prospective Study’. Int J Cancer, 127, pp. 685–95.

 

  • Chen, WY, Rosner, B, Hankinson, SE et al. (2011). ‘Moderate alcohol consumption during adult life, drinking patterns, and breast cancer risk’. JAMA, 306, pp. 1884– 90.

 

  • World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research. ‘Breast cancer report 2017’. Washington DC: AICR.

 

 

Tall Stature

  • Berkey, CS, Frazier, AL., Gardner, JD et al. (1999). ‘Adolescence and breast carcinoma risk’. Cancer, 85, pp. 2400–9.

 

 

Greater Birth Weight

  • Sainsbury, JR, Anderson, TJ & Morgan, DA (2000). ‘ABC of breast diseases: breast cancer’. BMJ, 321, pp. 745–50.

 

  • Baer, HJ, Colditz, GA, Willett, WC et al. (2007). ‘Adiposity and sex hormones in girls’. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 16, pp. 1880–8.

 

  • World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research. ‘Breast cancer report 2017’. Washington DC: AICR.

 

 

Increased Intake of Dairy Products

  • Trichopoulou, A, Bamia, C, Lagiou, P et al. (2010). ‘Conformity to traditional Mediterranean diet and breast cancer risk in the Greek EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) cohort’. Am J Clin Nutr, 92, pp. 620–5.

 

  • World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research. ‘Breast cancer report 2017’. Washington DC: AICR. Page 107.

 

  • Kesse-Guyot, E, Bertrais, S, Duperray, B et al. (2007). ‘Dairy products, calcium and the risk of breast cancer: results of the French SU.VI.MAX prospective study’. Ann Nutr Metab, 51, pp. 139–45.

 

  • Lin, J, Manson, JE, Lee, IM et al. (2007). ‘Intakes of calcium and vitamin D and breast cancer risk in women’. Arch Intern Med, 167, pp. 1050–9.

 

  • Hjartaker, A, Thoresen, M, Engeset, D et al. (2010). ‘Dairy consumption and calcium intake and risk of breast cancer in a prospective cohort: the Norwegian Women and Cancer study’. Cancer Causes Control, 21, pp. 1875–85.

 

 

Increased Calcium in Diet

  • Kesse-Guyot, E, Bertrais, S, Duperray, B et al. (2007). ‘Dairy products, calcium and the risk of breast cancer: results of the French SU.VI.MAX prospective study’. Ann Nutr Metab, 51, pp. 139–45.

 

  • Hjartaker, A, Thoresen, M, Engeset, D et al. (2010). ‘Dairy consumption and calcium intake and risk of breast cancer in a prospective cohort: the Norwegian Women and Cancer study’. Cancer Causes Control, 21, pp. 1875–85.

 

  • Larsson, SC, Bergkvist, L & Wolk, A (2009). ‘Long-term dietary calcium intake and breast cancer risk in a prospective cohort of women’. Am J Clin Nutr, 89, pp. 277– 82d.

 

  • Abbas, S, Linseisen, J, Rohrmann, S et al. (2013). ‘Dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium and breast cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition’. Nutr Cancer, 65, pp. 178–87.

 

 

Family History

  • Pharoah, PD, Day, NE, Duffy, S et al. (1997). ‘Family history and the risk of breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis’. Int J Cancer, 71, pp. 800–9.

 

  • Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer (2001). ‘Familial breast cancer: collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 52 epidemiological studies including 58,209 women with breast cancer and 101,986 women without the disease’. Lancet, 358, pp. 1389–99.

 

  • Kharazmi, E, Chen, T, Narod, S et al. (2014). ‘Effect of multiplicity, laterality and age at onset of breast cancer on familial risk of breast cancer: a nationwide prospective cohort study’. Breast Cancer Res Treat, 144, pp. 185–92.

 

 

BRCA Genes – BRCA2

  • Gershoni-Baruch, R, Dagan, E, Fried, G et al. (2000). ‘Significantly lower rates of BRCA1/BRCA2 founder mutations in Ashkenazi women with sporadic compared with familial early onset breast cancer’. Eur J Cancer, 36, p. 983.

 

  • Hodgson, SV, Heap, E, Cameron, J et al. (1999). ‘Risk factors for detecting germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 founder mutations in Ashkenazi Jewish women with breast or ovarian cancer’. J Med Genet, 36, p. 369.
  • Antoniou, A, Pharoah, PD, Narod, S et al. (2003). ‘Average risks of breast and ovarian cancer associated with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations detected in case Series unselected for family history: a combined analysis of 22 studies’. Am J Hum Genet, 72, p. 1117.

 

  • Chen, S & Parmigiani, G (2007). ‘Meta-analysis of BRCA1 and BRCA2 penetrance’. J Clin Oncol, 25, p. 1329.

 

  • Breast Cancer Linkage Consortium (1999). ‘Cancer risks in BRCA2 mutation carriers’. J Natl Cancer Inst, 91, p. 1310. 357

 

  • Kote-Jarai, Z, Leongamornlert, D, Saunders, E et al. (2011). ‘BRCA2 is a moderate penetrance gene contributing to young-onset prostate cancer: implications for genetic testing in prostate cancer patients’. Br J Cancer, 105, p. 1230.

 

 

Breast Cancer Supplementary Information

Level 1 – Primal and Primordial Prevention

  • Gillman, MW (2015). ‘Primordial prevention of cardiovascular disease’. Circulation, 131 (7), pp. 599–601. DOI:10.1161/circulationaha.115.014849.

 

  • Chiolero, A et al. (2015). ‘The pseudo-high-risk prevention strategy’. Int J Epidemiol, 44 (5), pp. 1469–1473. DOI:10.1093/ije/dyv102.

 

 

Level 2 – Primary Prevention

  • Katz, D & Ather, A. (2009). ‘Preventive medicine, integrative medicine & the health of the public’. Commissioned for the IOM Summit on Integrative Medicine and the Health of the Public.

 

  • Patterson, C.& Chambers, LW (1995). ‘Preventive health care’. The Lancet, 345 (8965), pp. 1611–1615.

 

Level 3 – Tertiary Prevention

  • Katz, D & Ather, A. (2009). ‘Preventive medicine, integrative medicine & the health of the public’. Commissioned for the IOM Summit on Integrative Medicine and the Health of the Public.

 

 

Level 4 – Quaternary Prevention

  • Leavell, HR & Clark, EG (1979). ‘The science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life, and promoting physical and mental health and efficiency’. Preventive medicine for the doctor in his community (3rd ed.). Huntington, NY: Robert E. Krieger Publishing Company.

 

  • Chiolero, A et al. (2015). ‘The pseudo-high-risk prevention strategy’. Int J Epidemiol, 44 (5), pp. 1469–1473.

 

  • Gofrit, ON, Shemer, J, Leibovici, D, Modan, B & Shapira SC (2000). ‘Quaternary prevention: a new look at an old challenge’. Isr Med Assoc J, 2 (7), pp. 498–500.

 

 

Melanoma Risk Factors

  • Siegel, RL, Miller, KD & Jemal, A (2019). ‘Cancer statistics, 2019’. CA Cancer J Clin, 69, p. 7.

 

  • Garbe, C & Leiter, U (2009). ‘Melanoma epidemiology and trends’. Clin Dermatol, 27, p. 3.

 

  • Aitken, JF, Youlden, DR, Baade, PD et al. (2018). ‘Generational shift in melanoma incidence and mortality in Queensland, Australia, 1995-2014’. Int J Cancer, 142, p. 1528.

 

  • Lange, JR, Palis, BE, Chang, DC et al. (2007). ‘Melanoma in children and teenagers: an analysis of patients from the National Cancer Data Base’. J Clin Oncol, 25, p. 1363.

 

 

Risk Factors

1) Ultraviolet Radiation

 

  • Gilchrest, BA, Eller, MS, Geller, AC & Yaar, M (199). ‘The pathogenesis of melanoma induced by ultraviolet radiation’. N Engl J Med, 340, p. 1341.

 

  • Buckel, TB, Goldstein, AM, Fraser, MC et al. (2006). ‘Recent tanning bed use: a risk factor for melanoma’. Arch Dermatol, 142, p. 485.

 

 

2) Timing and Pattern of Sun Exposure

  • Nelemans, PJ, Groenendal, H, Kiemeney, LA et al. (1993). ‘Effect of intermittent exposure to sunlight on melanoma risk among indoor workers and sun-sensitive individuals’. Environ Health Perspect, 101, p. 252.

 

  • Whiteman, DC, Stickley, M, Watt, P et al. (2006). ‘Anatomic site, sun exposure, and risk of cutaneous melanoma’. J Clin Oncol, 24, p. 3172.

           

  • Holman, CD & Armstrong, BK (1984). ‘Cutaneous malignant melanoma and indicators of total accumulated exposure to the sun: an analysis separating histogenetic types’. J Natl Cancer Inst, 73, p. 75.

 

3) Indoor Tanning

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2012). ‘Use of indoor tanning devices by adults–United States, 2010’. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, 61, p. 323.

 

  • El Ghissassi, F, Baan, R, Straif, K et al. (2009). ‘A review of human carcinogens–part D: radiation’. Lancet Oncol, 10, p. 751.

 

  • International Agency for Research on Cancer Working Group on artificial ultraviolet (UV) light and skin cancer (2007). ‘The association of use of sunbeds with cutaneous malignant melanoma and other skin cancers: A systematic review’. Int J Cancer, 120, p. 1116.

 

  • Boniol, M, Autier, P, Boyle, P & Gandini, S (2012). ‘Cutaneous melanoma attributable to sunbed use: systematic review and meta-analysis’. BMJ, 345, e4757.

 

  • Vajdic, CM, Kricker, A, Giblin, M et al. (2004). ‘Artificial ultraviolet radiation and ocular melanoma in Australia’. Int J Cancer, 112, p. 896.

 

 

4) PUVA Therapy

  • Stern RS, PUVA Follow up Study (2001). ‘The risk of melanoma in association with long-term exposure to PUVA’. J Am Acad Dermatol, 44, p. 755.

 

 

5) Skin Pigmentation and Tanning Ability

  • Gandini, S, Sera, F, Cattaruzza, MS et al. (2005). ‘Meta-analysis of risk factors for cutaneous melanoma: III. Family history, actinic damage and phenotypic factors’. Eur J Cancer, 41, p. 2040.

 

 

6) Congenital Nevi

  • Vourc’h-Jourdain, M, Martin, L, Barbarot, S & aRED (2013). ‘Large congenital melanocytic nevi: therapeutic management and melanoma risk: a systematic review’. J Am Acad Dermatol, 68, p. 493.

 

 

7) Atypical Nevi

  • Gandini, S, Sera F, Cattaruzza, MS et al. (2005). ‘Meta-analysis of risk factors for cutaneous melanoma: I. Common and atypical naevi’. Eur J Cancer, 41, p. 28.

 

 

8) FAMMM Syndrome and Atypical Mole Syndrome

  • Lynch, HT, Frichot, BC 3 rd & Lynch, JF (1978). ‘Familial atypical multiple mole-melanoma syndrome’. J Med Genet, 15, p. 352.

 

 

9) Personal History of Melanoma

  • Bradford, PT, Freedman, DM, Goldstein, AM & Tucker, MA (2010). ‘Increased risk of second primary cancers after a diagnosis of melanoma’. Arch Dermatol, 146, p. 265.

 

  • Goggins, WB & Tsao, H (2003). ‘A population-based analysis of risk factors for a second primary cutaneous melanoma among melanoma survivors’. Cancer, 97, p. 639. 358

 

10) Genetic Background

  • Rivers, JK (1996). ‘Melanoma’. Lancet, 347, p. 803.

 

 

11) History of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer

  • Marghoob, AA, Slade, J, Salopek, TG et al. (1995). ‘Basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas are important risk factors for cutaneous malignant melanoma. Screening implications’. Cancer, 75, p. 707.

 

  • Kahn, HS, Tatham, LM, Patel, AV et al. (1998). ‘Increased cancer mortality following a history of nonmelanoma skin cancer’. JAMA, 280, p. 910.

 

 

12) Immunosuppression

  • Kubica, AW & Brewer, JD (2012). ‘Melanoma in immunosuppressed patients’. Mayo Clin Proc, 87, p. 991.

 

  • Hollenbeak, CS, Todd, MM, Billingsley, EM et al. (2005). ‘Increased incidence of melanoma in renal transplantation recipients’. Cancer, 104, p. 1962.

 

 

13) Occupational Exposure

  • Ward, EM, Burnett, CA, Ruder, A & Davis-King, K (1997). ‘Industries and cancer’. Cancer Causes Control, 8, p. 356.

 

14) Dietary Pattern

  • Millen, AE, Tucker, MA, Hartge, P et al. (2004). ‘Diet and melanoma in a case-control study’. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 13, p. 1042.

 

 

15) Coffee

  • Liu, J, Shen, B, Shi, M & Cai, J (2016). ‘Higher caffeinated coffee intake is associated with reduced malignant melanoma risk: a meta-analysis study’. PLoS One, 11, e0147056.

 

  • Wang, J, Li, X & Zhang, D (2016). ‘Coffee consumption and the risk of cutaneous melanoma: a meta-analysis’. Eur J Nutr, 55, p. 1317.

 

  • Yew, YW, Lai, YC & Schwartz, RA (2016). ‘Coffee consumption and melanoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies’. Am J Clin Dermatol, 17, p. 113.

 

 

16) Citrus Fruits

  • Wu, S, Han, J, Feskanich, D et al. (2015). ‘Citrus consumption and risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma’. J Clin Oncol, 33, p. 2500.

 

 

17) Smoking

  • Merimsky, O, Inbar, M (1998). ‘Cigarette smoking and skin cancer’. Clin Dermatol, 16, p. 585.

 

 

18) Oral Contraceptives and Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy

  • Gandini, S, Iodice, S, Koomen, E et al. (2011). ‘Hormonal and reproductive factors in relation to melanoma in women: current review and meta-analysis’. Eur J Cancer, 47, p. 2607.

 

 

19) Drugs

  • Mariette, X, Matucci-Cerinic, M, Pavelka, K et al. (2011). ‘Malignancies associated with tumour necrosis factor inhibitors in registries and prospective observational studies: a systematic review and meta-analysis’. Ann Rheum Dis, 70, p. 1895.

 

  • Loeb, S, Folkvaljon, Y, Lambe, M et al. (2015). ‘Use of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors for erectile dysfunction and risk of malignant melanoma’. JAMA, 313, p. 2449.

 

 

20) Parkinson’s Disease

  • Olsen, JH, Friis, S & Frederiksen, K (2006). ‘Malignant melanoma and other types of cancer preceding Parkinson disease’. Epidemiology, 17, p. 582.

 

  • Inzelberg, R & Israeli-Korn, SD (2009). ‘The particular relationship between Parkinson’s disease and malignancy: a focus on skin cancers’. J Neural Transm. (Vienna), 116, p. 1503.

 

 

21) Endometriosis

  • Kvaskoff, M, Mesrine, S, Fournier, A et al. (2007). ‘Personal history of endometriosis and risk of cutaneous melanoma in a large prospective cohort of French women’. Arch Intern Med, 167, p. 2061.

 

  • Somigliana, E, Vigano, P, Parazzini, F et al. (2006). ‘Association between endometriosis and cancer: a comprehensive review and a critical analysis of clinical and epidemiological evidence’. Gynecol Oncol, 101, p. 331.

 

 

22) History of Prostate Cancer

  • Li, WQ, Qureshi, AA, Ma, J et al. (2013). ‘Personal history of prostate cancer and increased risk of incident melanoma in the United States’. J Clin Oncol, 31, p. 4394.

 

 

Prevention of Melanoma

  • Armstrong, BK & Kricker, A (1993). ‘How much melanoma is caused by sun exposure?’. Melanoma Res, 3, p. 395.

 

  • Aitken, JF, Youlden, DR, Baade, PD et al. (2018). ‘Generational shift in melanoma incidence and mortality in Queensland, Australia, 1995-2014’. Int J Cancer, 142, p. 1528.

 

 

Pathogenesis of Melanoma

  • Wang, SQ, Setlow, R, Berwick, M et al. (2001). ‘Ultraviolet A and melanoma: a review’. J Am Acad Dermatol, 44, p. 837.

 

 

Special Window Glass and Films

  • Tuchinda, C, Srivannaboon, S & Lim, HW (2006). ‘Photoprotection by window glass, automobile glass, and sunglasses’. J Am Acad Dermatol, 54, p. 845.

 

 

Using Sunscreen Containing Cosmetics

  • Draelos, ZD (2011). ‘The multifunctional value of sunscreen-containing cosmetics’. Skin Therapy Lett; 16, p. 1.

 

  • de Maleissye, MF, Beauchet A, Saiag, P et al. (2003). ‘Sunscreen use and melanocytic nevi in children: a systematic review’. Pediatr Dermatol, 30, p. 51.

Nevus (Nevi)

  • Egan, KM, Sosman, JA & Blot, WJ (2005). ‘Sunlight and reduced risk of cancer: is the real story vitamin D?’. J Natl Cancer Inst, 97, p. 161.

 

  • Lim, HW, Gilchrest, BA, Cooper, KD et al. (2005). ‘Sunlight, tanning booths, and vitamin D’. J Am Acad Dermatol, 52, p. 868.

 

 

Tanning Bed Use

  • International Agency for Research on Cancer Working Group on artificial ultraviolet (UV) light and skin cancer (2007). ‘The association of use of sunbeds with cutaneous malignant melanoma and other skin cancers: A systematic review.’ Int J Cancer, 120, p. 1116.

 

  • Autier, P & Boyle, P (2008). ‘Artificial ultraviolet sources and skin cancers: rationale for restricting access to sunbed use before 18 years of age’. Nat Clin Pract Oncol, 5, p. 178.

 

  • Lazovich, D, Isaksson, Vogel R, Weinstock, MA et al. (2016). ‘Association between indoor tanning and melanoma in younger men and women’. JAMA Dermatol, 152, p. 268.

 

  • Harrington, CR, Beswick, TC, Leitenberger, J & et al. (2011). ‘Addictive-like behaviours to ultraviolet light among frequent indoor tanners’. Clin Exp Dermatol, 36, p. 33.

 

  • Petit, A, Lejoyeux, M, Reynaud, M & Karila, L (2014). ‘Excessive indoor tanning as a behavioral addiction: a literature review’. Curr Pharm Des, 20, p. 4070.

 

  • Mosher, CE & Danoff-Burg, S (2010). ‘Addiction to indoor tanning: relation to anxiety, depression, and substance use’. Arch Dermatol, 146, p. 412.

 

  • Mays, D, Atkins, MB, Ahn, J & Tercyak, KP (2017). ‘Indoor tanning dependence in young adult women’. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 26, p. 1636.

 

 

Chemo Prevention of Melanoma

  • Demierre, MF & Merlino, G (2004). ‘Chemoprevention of melanoma’. Curr Oncol Rep, 6, p. 406.

 

  • Freeman, SR, Drake, AL., Heilig, LF et al. (2006). ‘Statins, fibrates, and melanoma risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis’. J Natl Cancer Inst, 98, p. 1538.

 

 

Vitamin D

  • Caini, S, Boniol, M, Tosti, G et al. (2014). ‘Vitamin D and melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer risk and prognosis: a comprehensive review and meta-analysis’. Eur J Cancer, 50 p. 2649.

Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents

  • Curiel-Lewandrowski, C, Nijsten, T, Gomez, ML et al. (2011). ‘Long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs decreases the risk of cutaneous melanoma: results of a United States case-control study’. J Invest Dermatol, 131, p.1460.

 

  • Gamba, CA, Swetter, SM, Stefanick, M et al. (2013). ‘Aspirin is associated with lower melanoma risk among postmenopausal Caucasian women: the Women’s Health Initiative’. Cancer,119, p. 1562.

 

 Lipid Lowering Agents

  • Freeman, SR, Drake, AL., Heilig, LF et al. (2006). ‘Statins, fibrates, and melanoma risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis’. J Natl Cancer Inst, 98, p.1538.

 

  • Bonovas, S, Nikolopoulos, G, Filioussi, K et al. (2010). ‘Can statin therapy reduce the risk of melanoma? A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials’. Eur J Epidemiol, 25, p. 29.

 

 

Oral Nicotinamide (Vitamin B3)

  • Chen, AC, Martin, AJ, Choy, B et al. (2015). ‘A phase 3 randomized trial of nicotinamide for skin-cancer chemoprevention’. N Engl J Med, 373, p. 1618.

 

 

Melanoma Screening and Early Detection

  • Kang, S, Barnhill, RL, Mihm, MC Jr et al. (1994). ‘Melanoma risk in individuals with clinically atypical nevi’. Arch Dermatol, 130, p. 999.

 

  • Mar, V, Wolfe, R & Kelly, JW (2011). ‘Predicting melanoma risk for the Australian population’. Australas J Dermatol, 52, p. 109.

 

  • Fortes, C, Mastroeni, S, Bakos, L et al. (2010). ‘Identifying individuals at high risk of melanoma: a simple tool’. Eur J Cancer Prev, 19, p. 393.

 

  • Katalinic, A, Eisemann, N & Waldmann (2015). ‘A. Skin cancer screening in Germany. documenting melanoma incidence and mortality from 2008 to 2013’. Dtsch Arztebl Int,112, p. 629.

 

  • Katalinic, A, Waldmann, A, Weinstock, MA et al. (2012). ‘Does skin cancer screening save lives?: An observational study comparing trends in melanoma mortality in regions with and without screening’. Cancer, 118, p. 5395.

 

 

Recognizing Melanoma

  • Grob, JJ & Bonerandi, JJ (1998). ‘The “ugly duckling” sign: identification of the common characteristics of nevi in an individual as a basis for melanoma screening’. Arch Dermatol, 134, p. 103.

 

  • American Academy of Dermatology Ad Hoc Task Force for the ABCDEs of Melanoma, Tsao, H, Olazagasti, JM et al. (2015). ‘Early detection of melanoma: reviewing the ABCDEs’. J Am Acad Dermatol, 72, p. 717.

 

  • Aitken, JF., Barbour, A, Burmeister, B, Taylor, S, Walpole, E, Australian Cancer Network, Smithers, BM. & Melanoma Guidelines Revision Working Party (2008) ‘Clinical practice guidelinesfor the management of melanoma in Australia and New Zealand’. Sydney, Australia: Cancer Council Australia; Australian Cancer Network; Ministry of Health, New Zealand.

 

 

Bladder Cancer

Bladder Cancer

  • Ferlay, J, Soerjomataram, I, Ervik, M et al. (2014). ‘GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: IARC Cancer Base No. 11’ [Internet]. Lyon, France: IARC.

 

 

Factors That Increase the Risk of Urinary Bladder Cancer

Arsenic

  • FAO/WHO (2006). ‘Summary of evaluations performed by the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives’.

 

 

Smoking

  • Secretan B, Straif, K, Baan, R et al. (2009). ‘A review of human carcinogens–Part E: tobacco, areca nut, alcohol, coal smoke and salted fish’. Lancet Oncol, 10, pp. 1033–4.

 

  • Freedman, ND, Silverman, DT, Hollenbeck, AR et al. (2011). ‘Association between smoking and risk of bladder cancer among men and women’. JAMA, 306, pp. 737– 45.

 

 

Infection

  • International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). World cancer report 2014. Stewart, BW Stewart & Wild, CP (eds.). IARC Publications/WHO Press. ISBN 978- 92-832-0429-9.

 

 

Occupational Exposure

  • Colt, JS, Karagas, MR, Schwenn, M et al. (2011). ‘Occupation and bladder cancer in a population-based case-control study in Northern New England’. Occup Environ Med, 68, pp. 239–49. 360

 

 

Genetic Mutations

  • Garcia-Closas, M, Malats, N, Silverman, D et al. (2005). ‘NAT2 slow acetylation, GSTM1 null genotype, and risk of bladder cancer: results from the Spanish Bladder Cancer Study and meta-analyses’. Lancet, 366, pp. 649–59.

 

Healthy Diet

  • Padayatty, SJ, Katz, A, Wang, Y et al. (2003). ‘Vitamin C as an antioxidant: evaluation of its role in disease prevention’. J Am Coll Nutr, 22, pp. 18–35.

 

 

Cruciferous Vegetables

  • Abbaoui, B, Riedl, KM, Ralston, RA et al. (2012). ‘Inhibition of bladder cancer by broccoli isothiocyanates sulforaphane and erucin: characterization, metabolism and interconversion’. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 56, p. 10.

 

Tea

  • Yang, CS, Wang, H, Li GX et al. (2011). ‘Cancer prevention by tea: evidence from laboratory studies’. Pharmacol Res, 64, pp. 113–22.31

 

  • World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research. ‘Bladder cancer report 2015’. Washington DC: AICR.

 

 

Brain Tumours

  • Howlader, N, Noone, AM, Krapcho, M et al. (2015). SEER cancer studies review, 1975-2012. Bethesda: National Cancer Institute.

 

  • Braganza, MZ, Kitahara, CM, Berrington de González, A et al. (2012). ‘Ionizing radiation and the risk of brain and central nervous system tumors: a systematic review’. Neuro Oncol, 14, p. 1316.

 

  • Bowers, DC, Nathan, PC, Constine, L et al. (2013). ‘Subsequent neoplasms of the CNS among survivors of childhood cancer: a systematic review’. Lancet Oncol, 14, e321.

 

  • Relling, MV, Rubnitz, JE, Rivera, GK et al. (1999). ‘High incidence of secondary brain tumours after radiotherapy and antimetabolites’. Lancet, 354, p. 34.

 

  • Pearce, MS, Salotti, JA, Little, MP et al. (2012). ‘Radiation exposure from CT scans in childhood and subsequent risk of leukaemia and brain tumours: a retrospective cohort study’. Lancet, 380, p. 499.

 

  • Piel C, Pouchieu, C, Tual, S et al. (2017). ‘Central nervous system tumors and agricultural exposures in the prospective cohort AGRICAN’. Int J Cancer, 141, p. 1771.

 

  • Amirian, ES, Zhou, R, Wrensch, MR et al. (2016). ‘Approaching a scientific consensus on the association between allergies and glioma risk: a report from the Glioma International Case-Control Study’. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 25, p. 282.

 

  • Ostrom, QT, Adel Fahmideh, M, Cote, DJ et al. (2019). ‘Risk factors for childhood and adult primary brain tumors’. Neuro Oncol, 21, p. 1357.

 

  • National Research Council (1981). ‘The health effects of nitrate, nitrite, and N-nitroso compounds’. Part 1. Washington DC: National Academy Press.

 

  • Huncharek, M, Kupelnick, B & Wheeler, L (2003). ‘Dietary cured meat and the risk of adult glioma: a meta-analysis of nine observational studies’. J Environ Pathol Toxicol. Oncol, 22, p. 129.

 

 

Ionizing Radiation

  • Braganza MZ, Kitahara, CM, Berrington de González, A et al. (2012). ‘Ionizing radiation and the risk of brain and central nervous system tumors: a systematic review’. Neuro Oncol, 14, p. 1316.

 

 

Children Who Have Been Exposed to Radiation

  • Bowers, DC, Nathan, PC, Constine, L et al. ‘Subsequent neoplasms of the CNS among survivors of childhood cancer: a systematic review’. Lancet Oncol. 2013; 14:e321.

 

  • Relling, MV, Rubnitz, JE, Rivera, GK et al. (1999). ‘High incidence of secondary brain tumours after radiotherapy and antimetabolites’. Lancet, 354, p. 34.

 

  • Pearce, MS, Salotti, JA, Little, MP et al. (2012). ‘Radiation exposure from CT scans in childhood and subsequent risk of leukaemia and brain tumours: a retrospective cohort study’. Lancet, 380, p. 499.

 

  • Davis, F, Il’yasova, D, Rankin, K et al. (2011). ‘Medical diagnostic radiation exposures and risk of gliomas’. Radiat Res, 175, p. 790.

 

 

Genetic Factors

  • Ostrom, QT, Adel Fahmideh, M, Cote, DJ et al. (2019). ‘Risk factors for childhood and adult primary brain tumors’. Neuro Oncol, 21, p.1357.

 

 

Familial Glioma

  • Malmer, B, Iselius, L, Holmberg, E et al. (2001). ‘Genetic epidemiology of glioma’. Br J Cancer, 84, p. 429.

 

 

Neurofibromatosis Type 2

  • Rouleau, GA, Merel, P, Lutchman, M et al. (1993). ‘Alteration in a new gene encoding a putative membrane-organizing protein causes neuro-fibromatosis type 2’. Nature, 363, p. 515.

 

 

Diet

  • Davis, FG, Preston-Martin, S (1998). ‘Epidemiology’. Russell and Rubinstein’s pathology of tumors of the nervous system (6th ed.). Bigner DD, McLendon RE, Bruner JM (eds.).London: Arnold. ISBN 0-340-58113-1.

 

  • National Research Council (1981). ‘The health effects of nitrate, nitrite, and N-nitroso compounds’. Part 1. Washington DC: National Academy Press.

 

  • Huncharek, M, Kupelnick, B & Wheeler, L (2003). ‘Dietary cured meat and the risk of adult glioma: a meta-analysis of nine observational studies’. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol, 22, p. 129.

 

 

Occupation

  • Wong, O & Raabe, GK (1989). ‘Critical review of cancer epidemiology in petroleum industry employees, with a quantitative meta-analysis by cancer site’. Am J Ind Med, 15, p. 283.

 

  • Khuder, SA, Mutgi, AB & Schaub, EA (1998). ‘Meta-analyses of brain cancer and farming’. Am J Ind Med, 34, p. 252.

 

 

Head Injury

  • Burch, JD, Craib, KJ, Choi, BC et al. (1987). ‘An exploratory case-control study of brain tumors in adults’. J Natl Cancer Inst, 78, p. 601.

 

 

Infections

  • Schuman, LM, Choi, NW & Gullen, WH (1967). ‘Relationship of central nervous system neoplasms to Toxoplasma gondii infection’. Am J Public Health Nations Health, 57, p. 848. 361

 

 

 

The Following Factors Are Known to Reduce the Risk of Brain Tumours

Immune Modulation

  • Amirian, ES, Zhou, R, Wrensch, MR et al. (2016). ‘Approaching a scientific consensus on the association between allergies and glioma risk: a report from the Glioma International Case-Control Study’. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 25, p. 282.

 

  • Scheurer, ME, El-Zein, R, Thompson, PA et al. (2008). ‘Long-term anti-inflammatory and antihistamine medication use and adult glioma risk’. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 17, p. 1277.

 

 

Suffering From Allergies

  • Ostrom, QT, Adel Fahmideh, M, Cote, DJ et al. (2019). ‘Risk factors for childhood and adult primary brain tumors’. Neuro Oncol, 21, p. 1357.

 

  • Linos, E, Raine, T, Alonso, A, Michaud, D (2007). ‘Atopy and risk of brain tumors: a meta-analysis’. J Natl Cancer Inst, 99, p.1544.

 

 

Suffering from Colds and Flu

  • Calboli, FC, Cox, DG, Buring, JE et al. (2011). ‘Prediagnostic plasma IgE levels and risk of adult glioma in four prospective cohort studies’. J Natl Cancer Inst, 103 p. 1588.

 

 

Consuming Food Rich in Vitamin C and Vitamin E

  • McCredie, M, Maisonneuve, P & Boyle P (1994). ‘Perinatal and early postnatal risk factors for malignant brain tumours in New South Wales children’. Int J Cancer, 56, p. 11.

 

 

Pre-Natal Vitamin Supplements

  • Preston-Martin, S, Pogoda, JM, Mueller, BA et al. (1998). ‘Prenatal vitamin supplementation and risk of childhood brain tumors’. Int J Cancer Suppl, 11, p. 17.

 

  • Bunin, GR, Kuijten, RR, Buckley, JD et al. (1993). ‘Relation between maternal diet and subsequent primitive neuroectodermal brain tumors in young children’. N Engl J Med, 329, p. 536.

 

 

Colorectal Cancer

  • Ferlay, J SI, Ervik, M et al. (2015). ‘GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.2, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11’ [Internet]. Lyon, France: IARC.

 

 

 

 

 

Risk Factors Affecting Colorectal Cancer

Smoking

  • Liang, PS, Chen, TY & Giovannucci, E (2009). ‘Cigarette smoking and colorectal cancer incidence and mortality: systematic review and meta-analysis’. Int J Cancer, 124, pp. 2406–15.

 

 

Aspirin

  • Rothwell, PM, Wilson, M, Elwin, CE et al. (2010). ‘Long-term effect of aspirin on colorectal cancer incidence and mortality: 20-year follow-up of five randomised trials’. Lancet, 376, pp. 1741–50.

 

 

Hormone Therapy

  • Vogtmann E, Xiang, YB, Li, HL et al. (2013). ‘Fruit and vegetable intake and the risk of colorectal cancer: results from the Shanghai Men’s Health Study’. Cancer Causes Control, 24, pp. 1935–45.

 

 

Whole Grain

  • Kyro, C, Skeie, G, Loft, S et al. (2013). ‘Intake of whole grains from different cereal and food sources and incidence of colorectal cancer in the Scandinavian HELGA cohort’. Cancer Causes Control, 24, pp. 1363–74.

 

  • McCarl, M, Harnack, L, Limburg, PJ et al. (2006). ‘Incidence of colorectal cancer in relation to glycemic index and load in a cohort of women’. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 15, pp. 892–6.

 

  • Larsson, SC, Giovannucci, E, Bergkvist, L et al. (2005). ‘Whole grain consumption and risk of colorectal cancer: a population-based cohort of 60,000 women’. Br J Cancer, 92, pp. 1803–7.

 

  • Fung, TT, Hu, FB, Wu, K et al. (2010). ‘The Mediterranean and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diets and colorectal cancer’. Am J Clin Nutr, 92, pp. 1429–35.

 

  • Park, Y, Hunter, DJ, Spiegelman, D et al. (2005). ‘Dietary fiber intake and risk of colorectal cancer: a pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies’. JAMA, 294, pp. 2849–57.

 

 

 

Foods Containing Dietary Fibre

  • Aune, D, Chan, DS, Lau, R et al. (2011). ‘Dietary fibre, whole grains, and risk of colorectal cancer: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies’. BMJ, 343, d6617.

           

  • Pi-Sunyer, X (2005). ‘Do glycemic index, glycemic load, and fiber play a role in insulin sensitivity, disposition index, and type 2 diabetes?’. Diabetes Care, 28, pp. 2978–9.

 

 

Non-Starchy Vegetables

  • Bamia, C, Lagiou, P, Buckland, G et al. (2013). ‘Mediterranean diet and colorectal cancer risk: results from a European cohort’. Eur J Epidemiol, 28, pp. 317–28.

 

  • Aoyama, N, Kawado, M, Yamada, H et al. (2014). ‘Low intake of vegetables and fruits and risk of colorectal cancer: The Japan Collaborative Cohort Study’. J Epidemiol, 24, pp. 353–60.

 

 

Fruits

  • Vogtmann, E, Xiang, YB, Li, HL et al. (2013). ‘Fruit and vegetable intake and the risk of colorectal cancer: results from the Shanghai Men’s Health Study’. Cancer Causes Control, 24, pp. 1935–45.

 

  • Lu, JM, Lin, PH, Yao, Q et al. (2010). ‘Chemical and molecular mechanisms of antioxidants: experimental approaches and model systems’. J Cell Mol Med, 14, pp. 840–60.

 

 

Vitamin C

  • Leenders, M, Leufkens, AM, Siersema, PD et al. (2014). ‘Plasma and dietary carotenoids and vitamins A, C and E and risk of colon and rectal cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition’. Int J Cancer, 135, pp. 2930–9.

 

  • World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research ‘Colorectal cancer report 2017’. Washington DC: AICR. Page 97. 362

 

  • Park, Y, Spiegelman, D, Hunter, DJ et al. (2010). ‘Intakes of vitamins A, C, and E and use of multiple vitamin supplements and risk of colon cancer: a pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies’. Cancer Causes Control, 21, pp. 1745–57.

 

  • ‘Effects of vitamins C and E on N-nitroso compound formation, carcinogenesis, and cancer’. Cancer. 1986; 58: 1842–50.

 

 

 

Red Meat

  • Agnoli, C, Grioni, S, Sieri, S et al. (2012). ‘Italian mediterranean index and risk of colorectal cancer in the italian section of the EPIC cohort’. Int J Cancer, 132, pp. 1404–11.

 

  • Parr, CL, Hjartaker, A, Lund, E et al. (2013). ‘Meat intake, cooking methods, and risk of proximal colon, distal colon, and rectal cancer: The Norwegian Women and Cancer (NOWAC) cohort study’. Int J Cancer, 133, pp. 1153–63.

 

  • Wie, GA, Cho, YA, Kang, HH et al. (2014). ‘Red meat consumption is associated with an increased overall cancer risk: a prospective cohort study in Korea’. Br J Nutr, 112, pp. 238–47.

 

  • Egeberg, R, Olsen, A, Christensen, J et al. (2013). ‘Associations between red meat and risks for colon and rectal cancer depend on the type of red meat consumed’. J Nutr, 143, pp. 464–72.

 

  • Alexander, DD, Miller, AJ, Cushing, CA et al. (2010). ‘Processed meat and colorectal cancer: a quantitative review of prospective epidemiologic studies’. Eur J Cancer Prev, 19, pp. 328–41.

 

 

Food Containing Heam Iron

  • Cross, AJ, Ferrucci, LM, Risch (2010), A et al. ‘A large prospective study of meat consumption and colorectal cancer risk: an investigation of potential mechanisms underlying this association’. Cancer Res, 70, pp. 2406–14.

 

  • Qiao, L & Feng, Y (2013). ‘Intakes of heme iron and zinc and colorectal cancer incidence: a meta- analysis of prospective studies’. Cancer Causes Control, 24, pp. 1175–83.

 

 

Fish

  • Spencer, EA, Key, TJ, Appleby, PN et al. (2010). ‘Meat, poultry and fish and risk of colorectal cancer: pooled analysis of data from the UK dietary cohort consortium’. Cancer Causes Control, 21, pp. 1417–25.

 

 

Dairy Products

  • Ralston, RA, Truby ,H, Palermo, CE et al. (2014). ‘Colorectal cancer and nonfermented milk, solid cheese, and fermented milk consumption: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies’. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr, 54, pp. 1167–79.

 

 

Dietary Calcium

  • Murphy, N, Norat, T, Ferrari P et al. (2013). ‘Consumption of dairy products and colorectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)’. PLoS One, 8: e72715.

 

  • Pierre, FH, Martin, OC, Santarelli, RL et al. (2013). ‘Calcium and α-tocopherol suppress cured-meat promotion of chemically induced colon carcinogenesis in rats and reduce associated biomarkers in human volunteers’. Am J Clin Nutr, 98, pp.1255–62.

 

 

Vitamin D

  • Skaaby, T, Husemoen, LL, Thuesen, BH et al. (2014). ‘Prospective population-based study of the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D levels and the incidence of specific types of cancer’. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 23: 1220–9.

 

  • Dou, R, Ng, K, Giovannucci, EL et al. (2016). ‘Vitamin D and colorectal cancer: molecular, epidemiological and clinical evidence’. Br J Nutr, 115, pp. 1643–60.

 

 

Multivitamin Supplements

  • Gaziano, JM, Sesso, HD, Christen, WG et al. (2012). ‘Multivitamins in the prevention of cancer in men: the Physicians’ Health Study II randomized controlled trial’. JAMA, 308: pp. 1871–80.

 

  • Hutchinson, J, Burley, VJ, Greenwood, DC et al. (2014). ‘General supplement use, subsequent use and cancer risk in the UK Women’s Cohort Study’. Eur J Clin Nutr, 68, pp. 1095–100.

           

  • Park, SY, Murphy, SP, Wilkens, LR et al. (2011). ‘Multivitamin use and the risk of mortality and cancer incidence: the multiethnic cohort study’. Am J Epidemiol, 173, pp. 906–14.

 

  • Lee, JE, Willett, WC, Fuchs, CS et al. (2011). ‘Folate intake and risk of colorectal cancer and adenoma: modification by time’. Am J Clin Nutr, 93, pp. 817–25.

 

  • Heine-Broring, RC, Winkels, RM, Renkema, JM et al. (2015). ‘Dietary supplement use and colorectal cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies’. Int J Cancer, 136, pp. 2388–401.

 

 

Alcohol

  • Nan, H, Lee, JE, Rimm, EB et al. (2013). ‘Prospective study of alcohol consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer before and after folic acid fortification in the United States’. Ann Epidemiol, 23, pp. 558–63.

 

  • Everatt, R, Tamosiunas, A, Virviciute, D et al. (2013). ‘Consumption of alcohol and risk of cancer among men: a 30 year cohort study in Lithuania’. Eur J Epidemiol, 28, pp. 383–92.

 

  • Aleksandrova, K, Pischon, T, Jenab, M et al. (2014). ‘Combined impact of healthy lifestyle factors on colorectal cancer: a large European cohort study’. BMC Med, 12, p. 168.

 

 

Physical Activity

  • Aleksandrova, K, Pischon, T, Jenab, M et al. (2014). ‘Combined impact of healthy lifestyle factors on colorectal cancer: a large European cohort study’. BMC Med, 12, p. 168.

 

  • Boyle, T, Keegel, T, Bull, F et al. (2012). ‘Physical activity and risks of proximal and distal colon cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis’. J Natl Cancer Inst, 104, pp. 1548–61.

 

 

Obesity, Waist Circumference, Waist and Hip Ratio, and Adult Attained Height

  • Kabat, GC, Heo, M, Wactawski-Wende, J et al. (2013). ‘Body fat and risk of colorectal cancer among postmenopausal women’. CCC, 24, pp. 1197–205.

 

  • Morikawa, T, Kuchiba, A, Lochhead, P et al. (2013). ‘Prospective analysis of body mass index, physical activity, and colorectal cancer risk associated with beta-catenin (CTNNB1) status’. Cancer Res, 73, pp. 1600–10.

 

  • Hughes, LA, Simons, CC, van den Brandt, PA et al. (2011). ‘Body size and colorectal cancer risk after 16.3 years of follow-up: an analysis from the Netherlands Cohort Study’. Am J Epidemiol, 174, pp. 1127–39.

 

  • Levi, Z, Kark, JD, Barchana, M et al. (2011). ‘Measured Body Mass Index in adolescence and the incidence of colorectal cancer in a cohort of 1.1 million males’. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 20, pp. 2524–31. 363

 

  • Yamamoto, S, Nakagawa, T, Matsushita, Y et al. (2010). ‘Visceral fat area and markers of insulin resistance in relation to colorectal neoplasia’. Diabetes Care, 33, pp. 184–9.

 

  • Li, H, Yang, G, Xiang, YB et al. (2013). ‘Body weight, fat distribution and colorectal cancer risk: a report from cohort studies of 134255 Chinese men and women’. Int J Obes (Lond), 37, pp. 783–9.

 

  • Kabat, GC, Xue, X, Kamensky, V et al. (2015). ‘Risk of breast, endometrial, colorectal, and renal cancers in postmenopausal women in association with a body shape index and other anthropometric measures’. CCC, 26, pp. 219–229.

 

  • Boursi, B, Haynes, K, Mamtani, R et al. (2014). ‘Height as an independent anthropomorphic risk factor for colorectal cancer’. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 26, pp. 1422–7.

 

 

 

 

Endometrial Cancer

  • Ferlay, J, Shin, HR, Bray, F et al. ‘GLOBOCAN 2008, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 10’.

 

 

Mechanism of Cancer Development

  • Amant, F, Moerman, P, Neven, P et al. (2005). ‘Endometrial cancer’. Lancet, 366, pp. 491–505.

 

  • Hardiman, P, Pillay, OC & Atiomo, W (2003). ‘Polycystic ovary syndrome and endometrial carcinoma’.Lancet, 361, pp. 1810–2.

 

 

Life Events

  • Rieck, G & Fiander, A (2006). ‘The effect of lifestyle factors on gynaecological cancer. Best practice & research’. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 20, pp. 227–51.

 

 

Medication

  • IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans (1999). Hormonal contraception and post-menopausal hormonal therapy (IARC monogr eval carcinog risks hum, 72). IARC Publications/WHO Press. ISBN 92-832-1272-X.

 

 

Glycaemic Load

  • George, SM, Mayne, ST, Leitzmann, MF et al. (2009). Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of cancer: a prospective cohort study’. Am J Epidemiol, 169, pp. 462–72.

 

  • Cui, X, Rosner, B, Willett, WC et al. (2011). ‘Dietary fat, fiber, and carbohydrate intake in relation to risk of endometrial cancer’. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 20, pp. 978–89.

 

  • Gnagnarella, P, Gandini, S, La, VC et al. (2008). ‘Glycemic index, glycemic load, and cancer risk: a meta- analysis’. Am J Clin Nutr, 87, pp. 1793–801.

 

  • World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research. ‘Endometrial cancer report 2013.’ Washington DC: AICR. Page 27.

 

  • World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research. ‘Endometrial cancer report 2013.’ Washington DC: AICR. Page 27.

 

 

 

Coffee

  • Nilsson, LM, Johansson, I, Lenner, P et al. (2010). ‘Consumption of filtered and boiled coffee and the risk of incident cancer: a prospective cohort study’. Cancer Causes Control, 21, pp. 1533–44.

 

  • Yu, X, Bao, Z, Zou, J et al. (2011). ‘Coffee consumption and risk of cancers: a meta-analysis of cohort studies’. BMC Cancer, 11, p. 96.

 

  • Je, Y & Giovannucci, E (2012). ‘Coffee consumption and risk of endometrial cancer: findings from a large up-to-date meta-analysis’. Int J Cancer, 131, pp. 700–10.

 

  • Bravi, F, Scotti, L, Bosetti, C et al. (2009). ‘Coffee drinking and endometrial cancer risk: a metaanalysis of observational studies’. Am J Obstet Gynecol, 200, pp. 130– 5.

 

 

Physical Activity

  • Friedenreich, C, Cust, A, Lahmann, PH et al. (2007). ‘Physical activity and risk of endometrial cancer: the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition’. Int J Cancer, 121, pp. 347–55.

 

  • Conroy, MB, Sattelmair, JR, Cook, NR et al. (2009). ‘Physical activity, adiposity, and risk of endometrial cancer’. Cancer Causes Control, 20, pp. 1107–15.

 

  • Friberg, E, Mantzoros, CS & Wolk, A (2006). ‘Physical activity and risk of endometrial cancer: a population-based prospective cohort study’. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 15, pp. 2136–40.

 

  • Gierach, GL, Chang, SC, Brinton, LA et al. (2009). ‘Physical activity, sedentary behavior, and endometrial cancer risk in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study’. Int J Cancer, 124, pp. 2139–47.

 

  • McTiernan, A (2008). ‘Mechanisms linking physical activity with cancer’. Nat Rev Cancer, 8, pp. 205–11.

 

  • Kaaks, R, Lukanova, A & Kurzer, MS (2002). ‘Obesity, endogenous hormones, and endometrial cancer risk: a synthetic review’. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 11, pp. 1531–43.

 

 

Sedentary Habits

  • Patel, AV, Feigelson, HS, Talbot, JT et al. (2008). ‘The role of body weight in the relationship between physical activity and endometrial cancer: results from a large cohort of US women’. Int J Cancer, 123, pp. 1877–82.

 

  • Moore, SC, Gierach, GL, Schatzkin, A et al. (2010). ‘Physical activity, sedentary behaviours, a nd the prevention of endometrial cancer’. Br J Cancer, 103, pp. 933–8.

 

  • World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research. ‘Endometrial cancer report 2013.’ Washington DC: AICR

 

  • Healy, GN, Wijndaele, K, Dunstan, DW et al. (2008). ‘Objectively measured sedentary time, physical activity, and metabolic risk: the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab)’. Diabetes Care, 31, pp. 369–71.

 

  • Helmerhorst, HJ, Wijndaele, K, Brage, S et al. (2009). ‘Objectively measured sedentary time may predict insulin resistance independent of moderate- and vigorousintensity physical activity’. Diabetes Care, 58, pp. 1776–9.

 

 

BMI – Body Mass Index

  • Bjorge, T, Engeland, A, Tretli, S et al. (2007). ‘Body size in relation to cancer of the uterine corpus in 1 million Norwegian women’. Int J Cancer, 120, pp. 378–83.

 

  • Lundqvist, E, Kaprio, J, Verkasalo, PK et al. (2007). ‘Co-twin control and cohort analyses of body mass index and height in relation to breast, prostate, ovarian, corpus uteri, colon and rectal cancer among Swedish and Finnish twins’. Int J Cancer, 121, pp. 810–8.

 

  • Reeves, GK, Pirie, K, Beral, V et al. (2007). ‘Cancer incidence and mortality in relation to body mass index in the Million Women Study: cohort study’. BMJ, 335, p. 1134.

 

  • Park, SL, Goodman, MT, Zhang, ZF et al. (2010). ‘Body size, adult BMI gain and endometrial cancer risk: the multiethnic cohort’. Int J Cancer, 126, pp. 490–9.

 

 

Waist/Hip Ratio

  • Westley, RL & May, FE (2013). ‘A twenty-first century cancer epidemic caused by obesity: the involvement of insulin, diabetes, and insulin-like growth factors’. International Journal of Endocrinology, 2013, 632461.

 

  • Rexrode, KM, Pradhan, A, Manson, JE et al. (2003). ‘Relationship of total and abdominal adiposity with CRP and IL-6 in women’. Ann Epidemiol, 13, pp. 674–82. 364

 

 

Adult Attained Height

  • Friedenreich, C, Cust, A, Lahmann, PH et al. (2007). ‘Anthropometric factors and risk of endometrial cancer: the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition’. Cancer Causes Control, 18, pp. 399–413.

 

  • Sung, J, Song, YM, Lawlor, DA et al. (2009). ‘Height and site-specific cancer risk: A cohort study of a korean adult population’. Am J Epidemiol, 170, pp. 53–64.

 

  • Kabat, GC, Heo, M, Kamensky, V et al. (2013). ‘Adult height in relation to risk of cancer in a cohort of Canadian women’. Int J Cancer, 132, pp. 1125–32.

 

 

Gall Bladder Cancer

  • Ferlay, J, Soerjomataram, I, Ervik, M, et al. (2014). ‘GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: IARC Cancer Base No. 11’ [Internet]. Lyon, France: IARC.

 

 

Mechanism of Cancer Development (Pathogenesis)

  • World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (2007). ‘Food, nutrition, physical activity, and the prevention of cancer: a global perspective’. Washington DC: AICR.

 

  • Randi, G, Franceschi, S & La Vecchia, C (2006). ‘Gallbladder cancer worldwide: geographical distribution and risk factors’. Int J Cancer, 118, pp. 1591–602.

 

 

Risk Factors Associated with Gall Bladder Cancer

Increased BMI

  • Samanic, C, Chow, WH, Gridley, G et al. (2006). ‘Relation of body mass index to cancer risk in 362,552 Swedish men’. Cancer Causes Control, 17, pp. 901–9.

 

  • Fujino, Y (2007). ‘Anthropometry, development history and mortality in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer (JACC)’. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 8 Suppl, pp. 105–12.

 

  • Schlesinger, S, Aleksandrova, K, Pischon, T et al. (2013). ‘Abdominal obesity, weight gain during adulthood and risk of liver and biliary tract cancer in a European cohort’. Int J Cancer, 132, pp. 645–57.

 

  • Whitlock, G, Lewington, S, Sherliker, P et al. (2009). ‘Body massindex and cause-specific mortality in 900 000 adults: collaborative analyses of 57 prospective studies’. Lancet, 373, pp. 1083–96.

 

  • Renehan, AG, Tyson, M, Egger, M et al. (2008). ‘Body-massindex and incidence of cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies’. Lancet, 371, pp. 569–78.

 

  • Larsson, SC & Wolk, A (2007). ‘Obesity and the risk of gallbladder cancer: a meta-analysis’. Br J Cancer, 96, pp. 1457–61.

 

 

Gastric Cancer

  • Ferlay, J, Soerjomataram, I, Ervik, M et al. (2014). ‘GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: IARC Cancer Base No. 11’ [Internet]. Lyon, France: IARC.

 

  • Ang, TL & Fock, KM (2014). ‘Clinical epidemiology of gastric cancer’. Singapore Med J; 55, pp. 621–8.

 

  • International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). World cancer report 2014. Stewart, BW & Wild, CP (eds.). IARC Publications/WHO Press. ISBN 978-92-832- 0429-9.

 

 

Causes of Stomach Cancer

Infection and Infestation

  • Ang, TL & Fock, KM (2014). ‘Clinical epidemiology of gastric cancer’. Singapore Med J; 55, pp. 621–8.

 

  • Ando, T, Goto, Y, Maeda, O et al. (2006). ‘Causal role of Helicobacter pylori infection in gastric cancer’. World J Gastroenterol, 12, pp. 181–6.

 

  • Ley, C, Mohar, A, Guarner, J et al. (2004). ‘Helicobacter pylori eradication and gastric preneoplastic conditions: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial’. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 13, pp. 4–10.

 

  • Wu, CY, Kuo, KN, Wu, MS et al. (2009). ‘Early Helicobacter pylori eradication decreases risk of gastric cancer in patients with peptic ulcer disease’. Gastroenterology, 137, pp. 1641–8.

 

 

EBV Infection

  • Iizasam, H, Nanbo, A, Nishikawa, J et al. (2012). ‘Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-associated gastric carcinoma’. Viruses, 4, pp. 3420–39.

 

 

 

 

 

Genetic Predisposition

  • International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). World cancer report 2014. Stewart, BW & Wild, CP (eds.). Lyon, France: IARC Publications/WHO Press. ISBN 978-92-832-0429-9.

 

 

Tobacco Use

  • International Agency for Research on Cancer (2012). Personal habits and indoor combustions. A review of human carcinogens (IARC monogr eval carcinog risks hum, 100E). Lyon, France: IARC Publications/WHO Press. ISBN 978-92-832-1322-2.

 

  • Tredaniel, J, Boffetta, P, Buiatti, E et al. (1997). ‘Tobacco smoking and gastric cancer: review and meta- analysis’. Int J Cancer, 72, pp. 565–73.

 

 

Industrial Chemical Exposure

  • Welling, R, Beaumont, JJ, Petersen, SJ et al. (2015). ‘Chromium VI and stomach cancer: a meta-analysis of the current epidemiological evidence’. Occup Environ Med, 72, pp. 151–9.

 

 

Low Fruit Intake

  • Gonzalez, CA, Lujan-Barroso, L, Bueno-de-Mesquita, HB et al. (2012). ‘Fruit and vegetable intake and the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma: a reanalysis of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-EURGAST) study after a longer follow-up.’ Int J Cancer, 131, pp. 2910–9.

 

  • Wang Q, Chen Y, Wang X et al. (2014). ‘Consumption of fruit, but not vegetables, may reduce risk of gastric cancer: results from a meta-analysis of cohort studies’. Eur J Cancer, 50, pp. 1498– 509.

 

 

Citrus Fruits

  • Freedman, ND, Subar, AF, Hollenbeck, AR et al. (2008). ‘Fruit and vegetable intake and gastric cancer risk in a large United States prospective cohort study’. Cancer Causes Control, 19, pp. 459–67.

 

 

Food Preserved by Salting

.•          Kurosawa, M, Kikuchi, S, Xu J et al. (2006). ‘Highly salted food and mountain herbs elevate the risk for stomach cancer death in a rural area of Japan’. J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 21, pp. 1681–6. 365

 

  • Takachi, R, Inoue, M, Shimazu, T et al. (2010). ‘Consumption of sodium and salted foods in relation to cancer and cardiovascular disease: the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study’. Am J Clin Nutr, 91, pp. 456–64.

 

  • Galanis, DJ, Kolonel, LN, Lee J et al. (1998). ‘Intakes of selected foods and beverages and the incidence of gastric cancer among the Japanese residents of Hawaii: a prospective study’. Int J Epidemiol, 27, pp. 173–80.

 

  • Jagerstad M & Skog, K (2005). Genotoxicity of heat-processed foods. Mutat Res, 74: pp. 156–72.

 

 

Processed Meat

  • González, CA, Jakszyn, P, Pera, G et al. (2006). ‘Meat intake and risk of stomach and esophageal adenocarcinoma within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)’. J Nat Cancer Inst, 98, pp. 345–54.

 

  • Iso, H & Kubota, Y (2007). ‘Nutrition and disease in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer (JACC)’. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 8 Suppl, pp. 35–80.

 

  • Zhu, H, Yang, X, Zhang, C et al. (2013). ‘Red and processed meat intake is associated with higher gastric cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiological observational studies’. PLoS One, 8, e70955.

 

 

Alcoholic Drinks

  • Sjodahl, K, Lu, Y, Nilsen, TI et al. (2007). ‘Smoking and alcohol drinking in relation to risk of gastric cancer: a population-based, prospective cohort study’. Int J Cancer, 120, pp. 128–32.

 

  • Everatt, R, Tamosiunas, A, Kuzmickiene, I et al. (2012). ‘Alcohol consumption and risk of gastric cancer: a cohort study of men in Kaunas, Lithuania, with up to 30 years follow-up’. BMC, 12, p. 475.

 

  • Sung, NY, Choi, KS, Park, EC et al. (2007). ‘Smoking, alcohol and gastric cancer risk in Korean men: The National Health Insurance Corporation Study’. Br J, Cancer, 97, pp. 700–4.

 

  • Tramacere, I, Negri, E, Pelucchi, C et al. (2012). ‘A meta-analysis on alcohol drinking and gastric cancer risk’. Ann Oncol, 23, pp. 28–36.

 

 

Grilled (Broiled) and Barbequed (Charboiled) Animal Foods

  • Ikeda, M, Yoshimoto, K, Yoshimura, T et al. (1983). ‘A cohort study on the possible association between broiled fish intake and cancer’. Gan, 74, pp. 640–8.

 

  • Kato, I, Tominaga, S & Matsumoto, K (1992). ‘A prospective study of stomach cancer among a rural Japanese population: a 6-year survey’. Jpn J Cancer Res, 83, pp. 568–75.

 

  • Skog, KI, Johansson, MA & Jagerstad, MI (1998). ‘Carcinogenic heterocyclic amines in model systems and cooked foods: a review on formation, occurrence and intake’. Food Chem Toxicol, 36, pp. 879–96.

 

 

Increased BMI

  • O’Doherty, MG, Freedman, ND, Hollenbeck, AR et al. (2012). ‘A prospective cohort study of obesity and risk of oesophageal and gastric adenocarcinoma in the NIHAARP Diet and Health Study’. Gut, 61, pp. 1261–8.

 

  • Hampel, H, Abraham, NS & El-Serag, HB (2005). ‘Meta-analysis: obesity and the risk for gastroesophageal reflux disease and its complications’. Ann Intern Med; 143: 199–211.

 

 

Kidney Cancer

  • Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Dikshit, R et al. (2015). ‘Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: sources, methods and major patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012’. Int J Cancer, 136, E359–86.

 

 

 

Risk Factors For Developing Kidney Cancer

Genetic Factors

  • Meister, M, Choyke, P, Anderson, C et al. (2009). ‘Radiological evaluation, management, and surveillance of renal masses in Von Hippel-Lindau disease’. Clin Radiol, 64, pp. 589–600.

 

 

Polycystic Kidney Disease

  • Marple, JT, MacDougall, M & Chonko, AM (1994). ‘Renal cancer complicating acquired cystic kidney disease’. J Am Soc Nephrol, 4, pp. 1951–6.

 

 

Medication

  • Gago-Dominguez, M, Yuan, JM, Castelao, JE et al. (1999). ‘Regular use of analgesics is a risk factor for renal cell carcinoma’. Br J Cancer, 81, pp. 542–8.

 

 

Smoking

  • Gandini, S, Botteri, E, Iodice, S et al. (2008). ‘Tobacco smoking and cancer: a meta-analysis’. Int J Cancer, 122, pp. 155–64.

 

  • Hunt, JD, van der Hel, OL, McMillan, GP et al. (2005). ‘Renal cell carcinoma in relation to cigarette smoking: meta-analysis of 24 studies’. Int J Cancer, 114, pp. 101– 8.

 

 

High Blood Pressure

  • Chow, WH, Dong, LM & Devesa, SS (2010). ‘Epidemiology and risk factors for kidney cancer’. Nat Rev Urol, 7, 245–57.

 

 

Increased Weight

  • Haggstrom, C, Rapp, K, Stocks, T et al. (2013). ‘Metabolic factors associated with risk of renal cell carcinoma’. P Lo S One, 8, e57475.

 

  • Parr, CL, Batty, GD, Lam, TH et al. (2010). ‘Body-mass index and cancer mortality in the Asia-Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration: pooled analyses of 424,519 participants’. Lancet Oncol, 11, pp. 741–52.

 

  • Renehan, AG, Tyson, M, Egger, M et al. (2008). ‘Body-massindex and incidence of cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies’. Lancet, 371, pp. 569–78.

 

  • Abdullah, A, Peeters, A, de Courten, M et al. (2010). ‘The magnitude of association between overweight and obesity and the risk of diabetes: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies’. Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 89, pp. 309–19.

 

 

Arsenic

  • International Agency for Research on Cancer (2012). Arsenic, metals, fibres, and dusts (IARC monogr eval carcinog risks hum, 100C). Lyon, France: IARC Publications/WHO Press. Pages 11–465. ISBN 978-92-832-1320-8.

 

 

Factors Reducing the Risk Of Kidney Cancer

Drinking Alcohol 

  • Lee, JE, Hunter, DJ, Spiegelman, D et al. (2007). ‘Alcohol intake and renal cell cancer in a pooled analysis of 12 prospective studies’. J Natl Cancer Inst, 99, pp. 801– 10.

 

 

Hepatocellular Carcinoma – Liver Cancer

  • Ferlay J, Soerjomataram, I, Ervick, M at al. (2015), ‘GOLBOCAN 2012 v1.2. Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide’. IARC CancerBase, No. 11’.

 

 

Alcohol

  • Pessione, F, Degos, F, Marcellin, P et al. (1998). ‘Effect of alcohol consumption on serum hepatitis C virus RNA and histological lesions in chronic hepatitis C’. Hepatology, 27, pp. 1717–22.

 

  • Seitz, HK & Stickel, F (2006). ‘Risk factors and mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis with special emphasis on alcohol and oxidative stress’. Biol Chem, 387, pp. 349– 60.

 

 

Toxins

  • Eaton, DL, Ramsdell, HS & Neal, G (1994). ‘Biotransformation of aflatoxins’. The toxicology of aflatoxins: human health, veterinary and agricultural significance. Eaton, DL & Groopman, JD (eds.). San Diego: Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-228255-8.

 

 

Smoking

  • Secretan, B, Straif, K, Baan, R et al. (2009). ‘A review of human carcinogens-Part E: tobacco, areca nut, alcohol, coal smoke and salted fish’. Lancet Oncol, 10, pp. 1033–4.

 

 

Obesity

  • Alzahrani, B, Iseli, TJ & Hebbard, LW (2014). ‘Non-viral causes of liver cancer: does obesity led inflammation play a role?’. Cancer Lett, 345, pp. 223–9.

 

 

Physical Activity

  • Behrens, G, Matthews, CE, Moore, SC et al. (2013). ‘The association between frequency of vigorous physical activity and hepatobiliary cancers in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study’. EurJ Epidemiol, 28, pp. 55–66.

 

 

Coffee

  • Bohn, SK, Blomhoff, R & Paur, I (2014). ‘Coffee and cancer risk, epidermiological evidence and molecular mechanisms’. Mol Nutr Food Res, 58, pp. 915–30.

 

 

Aspirin

  • Simon, Tracy G, Duberg, Ann-Sofi et al. (12 March 2020). ‘Association of Aspirin with hepatocellular carcinoma and liver related mortality’. New England Journal of Medicine; 382, pp. 1018–28.

 

 

Lung Cancer

  • Ferlay, J, Soerjomataram, I, Ervik M et al. (2015). ‘GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.2, Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: IARC CancerBase, No. 11’ [Internet]. Lyon, France: IARC.

 

  • Lam, WK, White, NW & Chan-Yeung, MM (2004). ‘Lung cancer epidemiology and risk factors in Asia and Africa’. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 8, pp. 1045–57.

 

  • Allemani C, Weir, HK, Carreira, H et al. (2015). ‘Global surveillance of cancer survival 1995-2009: analysis of individual data for 25,676,887 patients from 279 population-based registries in 67 countries (CONCORD-2)’. Lancet, 385, pp. 977–1010.

 

  • Taylor, R, Najafi, F & Dobson, A (2007). ‘Meta-analysis of studies of passive smoking and lung cancer: effects of study type and continent’. Int J Epidemiol, 36, pp. 1048–59.

 

 

Mechanism of Lung Cancer

  • Brenner, DR, Boffetta, P, Duell, EJ et al. (2012). ‘Previous lung diseases and lung cancer risk: a pooled analysis from the International Lung Cancer Consortium’. Am J Epidemiol, 176, pp. 573–85.

 

  • Sawada, N, Iwasaki, M, Inoue, M et al. (2013). ‘Dietary arsenic intake and subsequent risk of cancer: the Japan Public Health Center-based (JPHC) Prospective Study’. Cancer Causes Control, 24, pp. 1403–15.

 

 

Smoking

  • Pesch, B, Kendzia, B, Gustavsson, P et al. (2012). ‘Cigarette smoking and lung cancer–relative risk estimates for the major histological types from a pooled analysis of case-control studies’. Int J Cancer, 131, pp. 1210–9.

 

.•          Bray, FI & Weiderpass, E (2010). ‘Lung cancer mortality trends in 36 European countries: secular trends and birth cohort patterns by sex and region 1970-2007’. Int J Cancer, 126, pp. 1454–66.

 

 

Arsenic

  • Chen, CL, Chiou, HY, Hsu, LI et al. (2010). ‘Ingested arsenic, characteristics of well water consumption and risk of different histological types of lung cancer in northeastern Taiwan’. Environ Res, 110, pp. 455–62.

 

  • Baastrup, R, Sorensen, M, Balstrom, T et al. (2008). ‘Arsenic in drinking-water and risk for cancer in Denmark’. Environ Health Perspect, 116, pp. 231–7.

 

Beta Kertatine

  • Lin, J, Cook, NR, Albert, C et al. (2009). ‘Vitamins C and E and beta carotene supplementation and cancer risk: a randomized controlled trial’. J Natl Cancer Inst, 101, pp. 14–23

 

  • Roswall, N, Olsen, A, Christensen, J et al. (2009). ‘Source-specific effects of micronutrients in lung cancer prevention’. Lung Cancer, 67, pp. 275–81.

 

  • Satia, JA, Littman, A, Slatore, CG et al. (2009). ‘Long-term use of beta-carotene, retinol, lycopene, and lutein supplements and lung cancer risk: results from the VITamins And Lifestyle (VITAL) study’. Am J Epidemiol,169, pp. 815–28.

 

 

Vegetables

  • Bradbury, KE, Appleby, PN & Key, TJ (2014). ‘Fruit, vegetable, and fiber intake in relation to cancer risk: findings from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)’. Am J Clin Nutr, 100, pp. 394S–8S.

 

  • Gnagnarella, P, Maisonneuve, P, Bellomi, M et al. (2013). ‘Nutrient intake and nutrient patterns and risk of lung cancer among heavy smokers: results from the COSMOS screening study with annual low- dose CT’. Eur J Epi, 28, pp. 503–11b.

 

 

Fruits

  • Takata, Y, Cai, Q, Beeghly-Fadiel, A et al. (2012). ‘Dietary B vitamin and methionine intakes and lung cancer risk among female never smokers in China’. Cancer Causes Control, 23, pp. 1965–75.

 

  • Kabat, GC, Miller, AB et al. (2008). ‘Dietary intake of selected B vitamins in relation to risk of major cancers in women’. Br J Cancer, 99, pp. 816-21a.

 

 

Foods Containing Carotenoids

  • Takata, Y, Xiang, YB, Yang, G et al. (2013). ‘Intakes of fruits, vegetables, and related vitamins and lung cancer risk: results from the Shanghai Men’s Health Study (2002-2009)’. Nutr Cancer, 65, pp. 51–61.

 

 

Vitamin C in Food

  • Terry, P, Lagergren, J, Ye, W, et al. (2000). ‘Antioxidants and cancers of the esophagus and gastric cardia’. Int J Cancer, 87, pp. 750–4.

 

  • Lee, KW, Lee, HJ, Surh, YJ et al. (2003). ‘Vitamin C and cancer chemoprevention: reappraisal’. Am J Clin Nutr, 78, pp. 1074–8.

Food with Isoflavones

  • Wu, SH & Liu, Z (2013). ‘Soy food consumption and lung cancer risk: a meta-analysis using a common measure across studies’. Nutr Cancer, 65, pp. 625–32.

 

 

Red Meat

  • World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (2007). ‘Food, nutrition, physical activity, and the prevention of cancer: a global perspective’. Washington DC: AICR.

 

 

Processed Meat

  • Linseisen, J, Rohrmann, S, Bueno-de-Mesquita, B et al. (2011). ‘Consumption of meat and fish and risk of lung cancer: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition’. Cancer Causes Control, 22, pp. 909–18.

 

  • Tasevska, N, Sinha, R, Kipnis, V et al. (2009). ‘A prospective study of meat, cooking methods, meat mutagens, heme iron, and lung cancer risks’. Am J Clin Nutr, 89, pp. 1884–94.

 

 

Foods Containing Retinol

  • Epplein, M, Franke, AA, Cooney, RV et al. (2009). ‘Association of plasma micronutrient levels and urinary isoprostane with risk of lung cancer: the multiethnic cohort study’. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 18, pp. 1962–70.

 

 

Alcoholic Drinks

  • World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (2007). ‘Food, nutrition, physical activity, and the prevention of cancer: a global perspective’. Washington DC: AICR.

 

  • Jung, EJ, Shin, A, Park, SK et al. (2012). ‘Alcohol consumption and mortality in the Korean Multi-Center Cancer Cohort Study’. J Prev Med Public Health, 45, pp. 301–8.

 

  • Chao, C, Li, Q, Zhang, F et al. (2011). ‘Alcohol consumption and risk of lung cancer in the VITamins And Lifestyle Study’. Nutr Cancer, 63, pp. 880–8.64 • World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research. ‘Lung cancer report 2017’. Washington DC: AICR.

           

  • Kim, MK, Ko, MJ, Han, JT et al. (2010). ‘Alcohol consumption and mortality from all-cause and cancers among 1.34 million Koreans: the results from the Korea national health insurance corporation’s health examinee cohort in 2000’. Cancer Causes Control, 21, pp. 2295–302.

 

  • Ozasa, K (2007). ‘Alcohol use and mortality in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer (JACC)’. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 8 Suppl, pp. 81–8.

 

 

Physical Activity

  • Sun, JY, Shi, L, Gao, XD et al. (2012). ‘Physical activity and risk of lung cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies’. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 13 pp. 3143– 7.

 

 

Oesophageal Cancer

  • Ferlay, J, Soerjomataram, I, Ervik, M et al. (2014). ‘GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: IARC Cancer Base No. 11’ [Internet]. Lyon, France: IARC.

 

 

Mechanism of Cancer Developing

  • Rubenstein, JH & Taylor, JB (2010). ‘Meta-analysis: the association of oesophageal adenocarcinoma with symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux’. Aliment Pharmacol Ther, 32, pp. 1222-7.

 

 

Risk Factors for Oesophageal Cancer

Barrett’s Oesophagus

  • Hvid-Jensen, F, Pedersen, L, Drewes, AM et al. (2011). ‘Incidence of adenocarcinoma among patients with Barrett’s esophagus’. N Engl J Med, 365, pp. 1375–83.

 

 

Oesophageal Achalasia

  • Leeuwenburgh, I, Scholten, P, Alderliesten, J et al. (2010). ‘Long-term esophageal cancer risk in patients with primary achalasia: a prospective study’. Am J Gastroenterol, 105, pp. 2144–9.

 

 

Tylosis A, Plummer-Vinson Syndrome

  • Novacek, G (2006). ‘Plummer-Vinson syndrome’. Orphanet J Rare Dis, 1, p. 36.

 

 

Tobacco Use

  • Parkin, DM, Boyd, L & Walker, LC (2011). ‘16. The fraction of cancer attributable to lifestyle and environmental factors in the UK in 2010’. Br J Cancer, 105, Suppl 2: S77–81.

 

  • IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans (2004). Betel-quid and areca-nut chewing and some areca-nut derived nitrosamines (IARC monogr eval carcinog risks hum, 85). Lyon, France: IARC Publications/WHO Press. Pages 1–334. ISBN 92-832-1272-X.

 

 

Infection with Human Papilloma Virus

  • Ludmir, EB, Stephens, SJ, Palta, M et al. (2015). ‘Human papillomavirus tumor infection in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma’. J Gastrointest Oncol, 6, pp. 287– 95.

 

 

Vegetables

  • World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (2007). ‘Food, nutrition, physical activity, and the prevention of cancer: a global perspective’. Washington DC: AICR.

 

  • Liu, J, Wang, J, Leng, Y et al. (2013). ‘Intake of fruit and vegetables and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a meta-analysis of observational studies’. IntJCancer, 133, pp. 473–85.

 

 

Fruit

  • Liu, J, Wang, J, Leng, Y et al. (2013). ‘Intake of fruit and vegetables and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a meta-analysis of observational studies’. IntJCancer, 133, pp. 473–85.

 

 

 

Processed Meat

  • Choi, Y, Song, S, Song, Y et al. (2013). ‘Consumption of red and processed meat and esophageal cancer risk: meta-analysis’. World JGastroenterol, 19, pp. 1020–9.

 

 

Mate

  • International Agency for Research on Cancer/World Health Organization (1991) Coffee, tea, mate, methylxanthines and methylglyoxal (IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Volume 51). Lyon, France: IARC Publications/WHO Press. ISBN

978-92-832-1251-5. Available at: http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol51/mono51.pdf.

 

  • Andrici, J & Eslick, GD (2013). ‘Mate consumption and the risk of esophageal squamous cell arcinoma: a meta-analysis’. DisEsophagus, 26, pp. 807–16.

 

 

Drinking Hot Beverages

  • Loomis, D, Guyton, KZ, Grosse, Y et al. (2016), ‘Carcinogenicity of drinking coffee, mate and very hot beverages’. Lancet Oncol, 17, pp. 877–8

 

Alcoholic Drinks

  • Steevens, J, Schouten, LJ, Goldbohm, RA et al. (2010). ‘Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and risk of subtypes of oesophageal and gastric cancer: a prospective cohort study’. Gut; 59, pp. 39–48.

 

  • Oze,, I, Matsuo, K, Wakai, K et al. (2011). ‘Alcohol drinking and esophageal cancer risk: an evaluation based on a systematic review of epidemiologic evidence among the Japanese population’. Jpn J Clin Oncol, 41, pp. 677–92.

 

 

 

Physical Activity

  • Chen, Y, Yu, C, & Li Y (2014). ‘Physical activity and risks of esophageal and gastric cancers: a meta- analysis’. PLoSOne, 9, e88082.

 

  • Friedenreich, CM, Neilson, HK & Lynch, BM (2010). ‘State of the epidemiological evidence on physical activity and cancer prevention’. Eur J Cancer, 46, pp. 2593– 604.

 

 

Metabolic Syndrome and Insulin Resistance

  • Singh, S, Sharma, AN, Murad, MH et al. (2013). ‘Central adiposity is associated with increased risk of esophageal inflammation, metaplasia, and adenocarcinoma: a systematic review and meta- analysis’. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol, 11, pp. 1399–412.e7.

 

 

BMI

  • Merry, AH, Schouten, LJ, Goldbohm, RA et al. (2007). ‘Body mass index, height and risk of adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus and gastric cardia: a prospective cohort study’. Gut, 56, pp. 1503–11.

 

 

Waist Circumference

  • Steffen, A, Schulze, MB, Pischon, T et al. (2009). ‘Anthropometry and esophageal cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition’. Cancer EpidemiolBiomarkers Prev, 18, pp. 2079–89.

 

 

Central Obesity

  • Singh, S, Sharma, AN, Murad, MH et al. (2013). ‘Central adiposity is associated with increased risk of esophageal inflammation, metaplasia, and adenocarcinoma: a systematic review and meta- analysis’. Clin GastroenterolHepatol, 11, pp. 1399–412.

 

 

 

Waist/Hip Ratio

  • Lagergren, J (2011). ‘Influence of obesity on the risk of esophageal disorders’. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol; 8, pp. 340–7.

 

 

Ovarian Cancer

Mechanism of Ovarian Cancer

  • Kufe, D et al. (2003). Holland-Frei cancer medicine (6th ed.). Hamilton, Ontario: BC Decker. ISBN 1-55009-213-8.

 

  • Bell, DA (2005). ‘Origins and molecular pathology of ovarian cancer’. Mod Pathol, 18, Suppl 2, pp. S19–32.

 

 

 

Risk Factors for Ovarian Cancers Life Events

  • Jordan, SJ., Webb & Green, AC (2005). ‘Height, age at menarche, and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer’. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 14 (8), pp. 2045–8.

 

 

Medication

  • International Agency for Research on Cancer (2008). World cancer report 2008. Boyle, P & Levin, B (eds.). Lyon, France: IARC Publications/WHO Press. ISBN 978- 92-832-0423-7.

 

 

Breast Feeding

  • Tsilidis, KK et al. (2011). ‘Oral contraceptive use and reproductive factors and risk of ovarian cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition’. Br. J. Cancer, 105 (9), pp. 1436–1442.

 

 

Body Fat Deposits

  • Calle, EE & R, Kaaks (2004). ‘Overweight, obesity and cancer: epidemiological evidence and proposed mechanisms’. Nat Rev Cancer, 4 (8), pp. 579–91.

 

 

Increased BMI

  • Brandstedt,, J et al. (2011). ‘Anthropometric factors and ovarian cancer risk in the Malmo Diet and Cancer Study’. Cancer Epidemiol, 35 (5), pp. 432–437.

 

  • Leitzmann, MF et al. (2009. ‘Body mass index and risk of ovarian cancer’. Cancer, 115 (4), pp. 812–822. 369

 

  • Lundqvist, E et al. (2007). ‘Co-twin control and cohort analyses of body mass index and height in relation to breast, prostate, ovarian, corpus uteri, colon and rectal cancer among Swedish and Finnish twins’. Int J Cancer, 121 (4), pp. 810–818.

 

 

Waist Circumference

  • Kotsopoulos, J, Baer, HJ & Tworoger, SS (2010). ‘Anthropometric measures and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer: results from the Nurses’ Health Study’. Obesity (Silver. Spring), 18 (8), pp. 1625–1631.

 

  • Lahmann, PH et al. (2010). ‘Anthropometric measures and epithelial ovarian cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition’. Int J Cancer, 126 (10), pp. 2404–2415.

 

 

Waist/Hip Ratio

  • Canchola, AJ et al. (2010). ‘Body size and the risk of ovarian cancer by hormone therapy use in the California Teachers Study cohort’. Cancer Causes Control, 21 (12), pp.2241–2248.

 

 

 

Adult Attained Height

  • Chionh, F et al. (2010). ‘Physical activity, body size and composition, and risk of ovarian cancer’. Cancer Causes Control, 21 (12), pp. 2183–2194.

 

  • Baer, HJ, Hankinson, SE & Tworoger, SS (2008). ‘Body size in early life and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer: results from the Nurses’ Health Studies’. Br J Cancer, 99 (11), pp. 1916–1922.

 

 

Pancreatic Cancer

  • Ferlay, J, Shin, HR, Bray, F et al. (2010). ‘GLOBOCAN 2008, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 10’ [Internet]. Lyon, France: IARC.

 

 

Mechanism of Pancreatic Cancer Development

  • Stolzenberg-Solomon RZ, Graubard BI & Chari, S. ‘Insulin, glucose, insulin resistance, and pancreatic cancer in male smokers. JAMA, 2005, 294, pp. 2872-8.

 

 

Risk Factors for Pancreatic Cancer

Red Meat

  • Inoue-Choi, M, Flood, A, Robien K et al. (2011). ‘Nutrients, food groups, dietary patterns, and risk of pancreatic cancer in postmenopausal women’. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 20, pp. 711–4.

 

 

Processed Meat

  • Cross, AJ, Leitzmann, MF, Gail, MH et al. (2007). ‘A prospective study of red and processed meat intake in relation to cancer risk’. PLoS Med, 4, e325.

 

 

Foods Containing Fat

  • Thiebaut, AC, Jiao, L, Silverman, DT et al. (2009). ‘Dietary fatty acids and pancreatic cancer in the NIH-AARP diet and health study’. J Natl Cancer Inst, 101, pp. 1001–11.

 

  • Woutersen, RA, Appel, MJ, van Garderen-Hoetmer, A et al. (1999). ‘Dietary fat and carcinogenesis’. Mutat Res, 443, pp. 111–27.

 

 

Coffee

  • Nilsson, LM, Johansson, I, Lenner, P et a (2010). ‘Consumption of filtered and boiled coffee and the risk of incident cancer: a prospective cohort study’. Cancer Causes Control, 21, pp. 1533–44.

 

 

Alcoholic Drinks

  • Gapstur, SM, Jacobs, EJ, Deka, A et al. (2011). ‘Association of alcohol intake with pancreatic cancer mortality in never smokers’. Arch Intern Med, 171, pp. 444–51.

 

  • Michaud, DS, Vrieling, A, Jiao, L et al. (2010). ‘Alcohol intake and pancreatic cancer: a pooled analysis from the pancreatic cancer cohort consortium (PanScan)’. Cancer Causes Control, 21, pp. 1213–25.

 

  • Go, VLW, Gukovskaya, A & Pandol, SJ (2005). ‘Alcohol and pancreatic cancer’. Alcohol, 35, pp. 205–11.

 

 

Foods and Beverages Containing Sugar Fructose

  • Simon, MS, Shikany, JM, Neuhouser, ML et al. (2010). ‘Glycemic index, glycemic load, and the risk of pancreatic cancer among postmenopausal women in the women’s health initiative observational study and clinical trial’. Cancer Causes Control, 21, pp. 2129–36.

 

  • Nothlings, U, Murphy, SP, Wilkens, LR et al. (2007). ‘Dietary glycemic load, added sugars, and carbohydrates as risk factors for pancreatic cancer: the Multiethnic Cohort Study’. Am J Clin Nutr, 86, pp. 1495–501.

Increased BMI

  • Samanic, C, Chow, WH, Gridley, G et al. (2006). ‘Relation of body mass index to cancer risk in 362,552 Swedish men’. Cancer Causes Control, 17, pp. 901–9.

 

  • Parr, L, Batty, GD, Lam, TH et al. (2010). ‘Body mass index and cancer mortality in the Asia-Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration: pooled analyses of 424,519 participants’. Lancet Oncol, 11, pp. 741–52.

 

 

Waist Circumference

  • Arslan, AA, Helzlsouer, KJ, Kooperberg, C et al. (2010). ‘Anthropometric measures, body mass index, and pancreatic cancer: a pooled analysis from the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium (PanScan)’. Arch Intern Med, 170, pp. 791-802.

 

 

Waist/Hip Ratio

  • Genkinger, JM, Spiegelman, D, Anderson, KE et al. (2011). ‘A pooled analysis of 14 cohort studies of anthropometric factors and pancreatic cancer risk’. Int J Cancer, 129, pp. 1708–17.

 

  • Arslan, AA, Helzlsouer, KJ, Kooperberg, C et al. (2010). ‘Anthropometric measures, body mass index, and pancreatic cancer: a pooled analysis from the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium (PanScan)’. Arch Intern Med, 170, pp. 791–802.

 

 

Mechanism of Increased Risk with Increased Body Weight and Fat Deposit

  • Calle, EE & Kaaks, R (2004). ‘Overweight, obesity and cancer: epidemiological evidence and proposed mechanisms’. Nat Rev Cancer, 4, pp. 579–91. Adult Attained Height

 

  • Berrington, de GA, Spencer, EA, Bueno-de-Mesquita, HB et al. (2006). ‘Anthropometry, physical activity, and the risk of pancreatic cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition’. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 15, pp. 879–85.

 

  • Song, YM & Sung, J (2008). ‘Adult height and the risk of mortality in South Korean women’. Am J Epidemiol, 168, pp. 497–505. 370

 

 

Part Eleven

  • US Central Intelligence Agency. ‘Life expectancy at birth, country comparison to the world’. CIA World Factbook. Archived from the original on 13 June 2007.

           

  • Nuwer, R. ‘Keeping track of the oldest people in the world’. Smithsonian. Retrieved 13 January 2019.

 

  • Marziali, C (7 December 2010). ‘Reaching toward the fountain of youth’. USC Trojan Family Magazine.

 

  • Bernstein, A, Willcox, T et al. (2004). ‘First autopsy study of an Okinawan centenarian: absence of many age-related diseases’. Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences, 59A (11), pp. 1195–1199.

 

  • The Okinawa Centenarian Study.

 

  • Stein, R (July 1 2010). ‘New study of centenarians links certain genetic variations to a long lifespan’. The Washington Post Company.

 

 

 

Part Twelve

 

  • Reiter, RJ, Rosales-Corral, S, Tan, DX, Jou, MJ, Galano, A & Xu, B (November 2017). ‘Melatonin as a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant: one of evolution’s best ideas’. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 74 (21), pp. 3863–3881

 

  • Reiter, RJ, Mayo, JC, Tan, DX, Sainz, RM, Alatorre-Jimenez, M & Qin, L (October 2016). ‘Melatonin as an antioxidant: under promises but over delivers’. Journal of Pineal Research, 61 (3), pp. 253–78.

 

  • Bonnefont-Rousselot, D & Collin, F (November 2010). ‘Melatonin: action as antioxidant and potential applications in human disease and aging’. Toxicology, 278 (1), pp. 55–67.

 

  • Dr Joshua D. Schiffman MD, Huntsman Cancer Institute (HCI), at the University of Utah, Salt Lake City.

 

 

Fighting Cancer with Capybaras

  • Vincent Lynch – an evolutionary cancer biologist at the University of Chicago.

 

  • Servan-Schreiber, D (2011). Anticancer: a new way of life. Revised edition, Michael Joseph. ISBN 978-0-71815-684-8.

 

  • Fung, J (2020). The cancer code. HarperCollins Publishers. ISBN 978-0-00843-620-9.

 

  • Lippman, SM et al. (2009). ‘SELECT trial’. JAMA, 301, pp. 39-51.

 

  • Estrella, V. et al. (1 March 2013). ‘Acidity generated by the Tudor microenvironment drives local invasion’. Cancer Research, 73, no 5, pp. 1524–35.

 

  • Mi-Young, Kim (24 December 2009). ‘Tumor self-seeding by circulating cancer cells’. Cell, 139, no 7, pp. 1315–26

 

  • Bodmer, M et al. (2010). ‘Long-term metformin use is associated with decreased risk of breast cancer’. Diabetes Care, 33, pp. 1304-8.